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  • Literature Review

    Literature Review
    Paper instructions:
    Literature Review (N.B. This Is Not An Annotated Bibliography) = Six To Seven Pages, Due October 16th, Worth 20%.
    Students will identify at least two of each of the following sources: (1) Quantitative research studies; (2) Qualitative research; (3) Popular media; and (4) Personal narrative (for example, a diary, a letter, a blog, a personal account found in a book, magazine, etc).

    They will explain the contribution and importance of each identified source for their research question. They will also describe the gaps or missing knowledge in their sources. Sources should represent current knowledge about the research question’s subtopic.

    Note that eight sources may not be enough for a thorough Literature Review depending on the quality of the sources.
    Women enrolment in nontraditional courses
    Today in contemporary society, there is unequal distribution of power and financial resources between men and women. Education has been cited as one of the major contributors to this imbalance (ESU, 2011). Higher education plays a fundamental role in shaping modern society and building the capacity needed to run a modern economy. Many studies conducted have revealed that people with a background in higher education tend to hold powerful positions in society and play vital roles in running (ESU, 2011). It has been found out that issue of gender inequality in institutions of higher learning is closely associated with other strands of discrimination (ESU, 2011). However, according to the National Science Foundation (2012), the proportion of women enrolling in undergraduate programs enrolling in traditional programs is of equal proportion to that of men. On the other hand, the proportions are significantly lower in nontraditional courses. For example, in the last ten years the percentage of undergraduate degree earned by women fell further exacerbating the issue (National Science Foundation, 2012). In view of this, the purpose of the study would be to determine the proportion of women who enroll in nontraditional courses like engineering, chemistry, and mathematics and determine the causative factors.
    The worrying trend of lower proportions of women enrolling in nontraditional courses fuels the disproportional distribution of financial means and positions of leadership in contemporary society. In order to address this issue, it is important that the factors that contribute to the current state be established. It would also be useful to both the management of institutions of higher learning and state education management authorities in the form of policy makers to get an indication of the current state of women enrollment in nontraditional courses.
    The management of institutions of higher learning is responsible for ensuring equal enrollment of students across the gender divide in all of the programs that their institutions offer. The management needs information that would give an indication of the proportion of women who have enrolled in nontraditional courses in comparison to the proportion of males. Information on the factors that also contribute to the current state of enrollment in nontraditional courses is would be of great value to the management of higher learning institutions. This study, driven by the research question would provide precisely the required information. With this information it would be possible to make informed decisions with regard to formulation of policy that when implemented would yield the desired outcome. The desired outcome would be to standardization of the proportions of women being enrolled in nontraditional courses to that of men.
    The state education department together with all the stakeholders would also benefit from the information. The state would use the information to develop policies that would encourage statewide enrollment of women in nontraditional courses. The state can take appropriate action in collaboration with respective university management boards to affect certain measures that they deem would be useful in promoting women enrolment in nontraditional courses.
    The ultimate goal is to see to it that more women enroll in nontraditional courses offered in institutions of higher learning. Once the proportion of women increases, women will stand a better chance at securing powerful positions in modern society, and acquiring financial means. Ensuring gender equality in contemporary society continues to be a key agenda in today’s America. Women deserve to have equal chances in comparison to men. The research question would generate information that would form the platform for formulation and implementation of programs that will lead to better enrolment of women and better representation in the workplace.

    References
    ESU. (2011). 2008 policy paper “gender equality in higher education.” Retrieved from http://www.esu-
    online.org/news/article/6064/100/
    National Science Foundation. (2012). Higher Education in Science and Engineering. Retrieved from

    http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/c2/c2s2.htm

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