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    reading journal of ” a piece of cake” (chap.34-43) by cupcake brown

    ‘1 . When itcomes to automobiles, it isn‘t easy being
    green. Despite winning the 2008 Green Car of the
    1,, 1- ‘_ ‘ r; Year award for its Chevy Tahoe Hybrid, General
    7′ ” :5 Motors has been questioned about its dedication
    p , ‘4 1 “‘ – to green manufacturing. Critics gained ammunition
    525″‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘a,’ ., .. ‘ i when GM vice chairman Robert Lutz doubted

    fl ’ ‘,____ l p I ‘ publiclythathumans cause climate change.
    a‘ x I‘ 1,-‘ x _~ ‘ ‘L,;-_.”?L_-“- V… ._~ _a-II ’ calling global warming “a totai crock.” Butwhen
    a.”f ‘ ‘-“‘ _ _r_,~ H activists began u-sing the comments to paint GM
    i – ‘ “_” i ‘- -5.! as environmentally irresponsible, Lutz quickly
    i L.‘ l – – i 7 . responded on the company’s biog. stating that
    I ‘ ” ‘ 1 his views were personal and did not reflect GM
    policy. in what situations might companies choose
    I ‘ . to communicate with the public using blogs?
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    E , lend importance to a message. Memos are espec1ally appropriate for explain-
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    memos.
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    look professionay IM is especially useful for back-and-forth online conversations, such as a
    93 Chapter 5: Electronic Messages and Memorandums 1 0113919’ 5: E’9Ctl’0“iC Messages and M9m°T3″‘d“m5

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    Standardizing Purchase Requests

    •Write exercise 5.13: “Standardizing Purchase Requests” pge(127) as a hard copy. you’ll find the question in reading book.

    page 127
    please follow the instructions step by step

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    Love And Its Myths

    Read The Velveteen Rabbit , by Margery Williams, available online at

    http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/williams/rabbit/rabbit.html

    In 500 words or less explain why you think Paul Tillich and the character of the Skin Horse would agree on the nature of

    love and its effects.

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    Usability Engineering

    Case Study for Usability Engineering Examination:

    Background: Smart City Interfaces

    http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/ca/en/smarter_cities/overview/

    The concept of Smart Cities involves IT infrastructure such as wireless networks and mobile and public use interfaces, shared

    public data around topics such as transport, environment, business or health and active citizen engagement. Smart City

    technology involves both monitoring and management systems aimed at professionals in Local Authorities, health services,

    water management and so an as well as systems aimed at active citizens. The case study is about topics in usability

    engineering for a potential Smart City project based in Swansea.

    1- Example Smart City Design

    You should apply a range of techniques of Usability Engineering, such as Task Analysis and application of Human Factors

    theory to an interface design for your chosen Smart City concept example for Swansea. You should present sketches of your

    prototype interface. Concentrate on a specific area, for example:
    Traffic management interface: this could be an in car and roadside display system to warn drivers of congestion or pollution

    and suggest a better route.
    Public transport interface: if you are at the Mount Pleasant campus and your bus to Llansamlet os delayed this system could

    suggest alternatives such as bus, taxi or car share via a mobile phone  interface.
    Health: you have toothache but are not registered at a dentist. A phone based interface could help you. Shoppers could be

    directed to ingredients fitting with their diet plan when buying food or eating out in the city. Or you could be directed to

    fun places to exercise after your day in University and your exercise plan could be monitored and posted on social networks.
    An interface for a smart sensor system could aid users and managers of infrastructure such as the water, gas or electricity

    networks in assessing demand and finding problems such as leaks.

    You will need to use a range of Usability resources for this topic, but see especially your notes on Task Analysis and Human

    Factors. For some general information on Smart Cities, see the IBM and CISCO resources (but remember to concentrate on

    interface features).

    http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/ca/en/smarter_cities/overview/

    http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/smart_connected_communities.html

    2- Usability Guidelines and Accessibility

    Applying usability guidelines is an important step in ensuring the ease of use of systems. You should apply a set of

    usability guidelines such as Dix’s to the Smart City Scenario and evaluate their usefulness is this new context. Specific

    examples of interface features for any aspect of Smart City technology applied to Swansea need to be given here. The

    accessibility of the Smart City tools provided is important, both to comply with legislation and to make sure the enhanced

    opportunities are available to all citizens. A challenge here is that many accessibility guidelines are Web based, so their

    applicability to mobile tools needs to be investigated.
    Use your notes on Guidelines and accessibility to get started on the topic. Key resources are Dix’s guidelines and the W3C

    Web Accessibility Initiative.

    3- Evaluation of Smart City Interfaces

    You should be familiar with a range of usability evaluation techniques. Consider how these could be applied to the range of

    tools for a Smart City project based in Swansea. A particular issue in Usability research is the evaluation of mobile

    devices, and there are also challenges in evaluating public use systems. In some cases there are safety issues where key

    infrastructure systems are involved. It is important to find examples of usability evaluation techniques used in relevant

    research literature to identify and justify ideas for the evaluation of the range of Smart City interfaces.
    See notes on Interface Evaluation for a range of examples. A good answer will include further relevant evaluation examples

    from the literature (possibly including your own project or dissertation evaluation if relevant).

    4- A Smart History Project for Swansea

    Many aspects of Swansea’s history are difficult to appreciate when walking around the city or visiting venues. This is

    because large areas of the city have been completely redeveloped because of widespread bomb damage throughout the city centre

    and docks (SA1) area. The area around the Liberty Stadium was an important part of the Industrial Revolution with many

    groundbreaking processes in industry developed here. It can be impossible for a visitor or resident to even identify the

    location of a street or building from 70 years ago because of the many sweeping changes and many do not appreciate the

    history of the city. As with all history systems, there is a large amount of historical information to navigate through.

    Google Earth gives a historical view with aerial photos from 1945 which helps illustrate the many changes to the city. You

    should develop a prototype interface to help showcase some of the historical resources of the city. This could be a mobile

    app design or could be a desktop based system (for example creating a customised map for a walk or drive). Historical

    information could also be linked with other Smart City applications, for example information about the course of the river

    Tawe before it was moved could inform flood control. You should include a sketched prototype design  and explain how it was

    informed by research examples of history systems. Use your notes as a starting point and look at research based systems as

    well as history resources. You will also need to look at some local history resources such as the People’s Collection Wales

    and the historical information on the Map my Walk app as well as examples from your own research.

    http://www.peoplescollectionwales.co.uk/collections/376966

    http://www.mapmywalk.com/gb/swansea-wls/

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    Design of Solar Boat for race comptition

    1. Develop Engineering Specification(s)
    a. Establish the design problem (write problem statement)
    b. Understand problem
    i. Research problem and establish need
    ii. Identify customers
    iii. Define customer requirements (needs/wants)
    c. Assess the competition
    d. Generate engineering (measurable) requirements
    Note
    main specification of the boat for the competition:
    – Maximum length: 6 m
    – Maximum width: 2.4 m
    – Driver weight: 70 kg
    – Battery weight: 45 kg

    e. Establish engineering targets (benchmarks)
    f. Define Product Design Specification (PDS)

    2. Develop Concepts
    a. Determine and system functions (decompose to lowest level)
    b. Generate concepts
    c. Evaluate concepts
    i. Screen for feasibility, technological readiness
    ii. Use the decision matrix
    d. Determination of preliminary design (prototype if necessary for functionality test)

    3. Market Segmentation
    a. Potential customer base
    Who will buy this product? Why?
    Have you listed all potential classes of customers?
    Can we tap into a new segment of the market? How?

    b. Market constraints on product.
    Who is buying this type product? (customer base)
    What is currently selling?
    What is currently not selling?

    c. Expected product competition (These will be benchmarked)
    If you were a customer, which of the competing products would you buy?
    What is the market share of each competing product?
    What are the strengths of each competing product? Can we incorporate them?
    What are the weaknesses of each competing product? Can we improve?

    Step 4: Coding
    Submit the thematic analysis of your data (coding). Specifically you are to provide: a) A definition for each code; b) Coding

    summary by source report (report automatically generated by NVIVO); c) Graphic representation of coding hierarchy; d) Graphic

    representation of the relationships between the codes.

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    Human security and Environmental Change

    How might a researchers position shape the processes and outcomes of their research (Use an example from ”Human security and

    Environmental Change” to illustrate your answer)? Is reflexivity a sufficient protection against the risks o

    How might a researchers position shape the processes and outcomes of their research (Use an example from ”Human security and

    Environmental Change” to illustrate your answer)? Is reflexivity a sufficient protection against the risks o

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    Advertising Media and Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)

    From the scenario, distinguish between two to three (2-3) different types of advertising media available for the new product

    launch. Provide two (2) suggestions for the marketing intern that will help her to create an advertising budget.
    •From the first e-Activity, outline the design for an IMC campaign that would use a different media other than the one used

    in the product or service you reviewed. For example, if the advertisement you reviewed was designed for the radio, consider

    the details for a complimentary Web or magazine advertisement.

    DQ2:
    “The Importance of Social Media and Web Analytics”  Please respond to the following:
    •From the case study, assess the degree to which Salina Siu effectively used YouTube to develop customer loyalty. Appraise

    the success potential of at least two (2) other social media methods that Salina could use to promote her business. Justify

    your response.
    •* From the scenario, prioritize the most significant components of a social media campaign according to the level of

    influence each could have on the new product launch. Examine both the social media tools that will provide the highest return

    on investment (ROI), and two (2) key performance indicators (KPIs) that one could use to measure success. Provide a rationale

    for your response.

    DQ3:
    “Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Focus Groups”  Please respond to the following:
    •    From the case study, hypothesize the usefulness of the NPS data as it applies to customer satisfaction scores for

    Finale. Provide a rationale for your response.
    •    * From the scenario, propose two (2) methods that GoldsReling, Inc. could use in order to effectively measure

    customer satisfaction for the new product launch. Choose the most effective method, and suggest one (1) process that the

    organization could follow in order to implement your chosen method. Justify your response.

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    Against animal testing

    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0024059

    http://www.indiana.edu/~acoustic/s685/Rowan-1997.pdf

    Chimpanzees at the New Iberia Research Center in Louisiana are some of very few remaining worldwide that are still being used

    in invsive research.
    As pressure from activists builds, the United States is considering
    whether it should end invasive experiments in chimpanzees.
    BY MEREDITH WADMAN
    he unusual meeting was held in a conference room, but it can we provide actual time span data or numbers?”
    might have been called a war room. Gathered inside a little- Another slide went on to note that the National Institutes of

    Health
    known research centre in southern Louisiana, the people (NIH) spends about US$12 million a year caring for the chimpanzees
    who oversee chimpanzee research in the United States were it supports (currently totalling 734), versus the billions in

    health-care
    preparing to battle for the survival of their enterprise. costs for the human diseases that can be studied through

    experiments
    Although no other country besides Gabon carries out invasive on chimpanzees. One of them, hepatitis C, currently affects at

    least
    experiments with chimpanzees, the United States continues such 170 million people globally. If researchers don’t have access

    to the
    work at three major research facilities. Louisiana’s New Iberia Research chimp model, said Rowell, people afflicted with

    hepatitis C will suffer.
    Center (NIRC) is the largest, with a population of 360 chimps, used by “Their lifespans are going to be shortened. They will

    not have a proper
    investigators from pharmaceutical companies and federal agencies to quality of life.’ ’ He called them a “silent voice”.
    test new drugs and study diseases such as hepatitis. During the meeting, Rowell’s pep talk in April was partly for the

    benefit of some visitors
    Thomas Rowell, director of the NIRC, stood up, surveyed the audience, at the meeting: representatives from the Food and Drug

    Administra-

    Chimpanzees at the New Iberia Research Center in Louisiana are some of very few remaining worldwide that are still being used

    in invasive research.

    RESEARCH ON TRIAL
    As pressure from activists builds, the United States is considering whether it should end invasive experiments in

    chimpanzees.
    B Y M E R E D I T H WA D M A N

    CHIMPANZEE

    T

    he unusual meeting was held in a conference room, but it might have been called a war room. Gathered inside a littleknown

    research centre in southern Louisiana, the people who oversee chimpanzee research in the United States were preparing to

    battle for the survival of their enterprise. Although no other country besides Gabon carries out invasive experiments with

    chimpanzees, the United States continues such work at three major research facilities. Louisiana’s New Iberia Research Center

    (NIRC) is the largest, with a population of 360 chimps, used by investigators from pharmaceutical companies and federal

    agencies to test new drugs and study diseases such as hepatitis. During the meeting, Thomas Rowell, director of the NIRC,

    stood up, surveyed the audience, and launched into a presentation about possible strategies to build public support for their

    work. “How do we get industry to be forthcoming about their use of chimpanzees?” a slide read. “Could we get at least a few

    solid examples of how the use of chimpanzees has truncated the time to discovery?” And “When we talk about time and lives

    saved by using chimpanzees,
    2 6 8 | NAT U R E | VO L 4 7 4 | 1 6 J U N E 2 0 1 1

    can we provide actual time span data or numbers?” Another slide went on to note that the National Institutes of Health (NIH)

    spends about US$12 million a year caring for the chimpanzees it supports (currently totalling 734), versus the billions in

    health-care costs for the human diseases that can be studied through experiments on chimpanzees. One of them, hepatitis C,

    currently affects at least 170 million people globally. If researchers don’t have access to the chimp model, said Rowell,

    people afflicted with hepatitis C will suffer. “Their lifespans are going to be shortened. They will not have a proper

    quality of life.” He called them a “silent voice”. Rowell’s pep talk in April was partly for the benefit of some visitors at

    the meeting: representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious

    Diseases, the drug industry and, most importantly, the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The IOM, the medical branch of the

    independent National Academy of Sciences, was asked by the NIH in January to examine whether the government should keep

    supporting biomedical research on chimpanzees — the closest living relatives of Homo sapiens. The NIH called for the study

    after the agency sparked a storm of

    © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

    J. BREAUX

    FEATURE NEWS
    opposition last year, when it announced plans to move 186 semi-retired chimps back into active research1. After protests by

    the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) in Washington DC, famed primatologist Jane Goodall and others, the NIH changed

    course and said that it would make no decision on moving the chimps until the IOM study is complete. The study, it announced,

    would be “an in-depth analysis to reassess the scientific need for the continued use of chimpanzees to accelerate biomedical

    discoveries”. Proponents say that the research is necessary for continued progress towards a hepatitis-C vaccine; for

    developing more effective drugs against hepatitis B and C; for testing monoclonal antibody treatments for a variety of

    conditions; and for research to develop a vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus, a seasonal virus that kills more than

    more than 66,000 children under the age of 5 each year across the globe2. For many of these conditions, backers argue, the

    chimpanzee is either the only available model, or by far the best one. But chimpanzee research in the United States is facing

    growing public and political opposition. Animal-welfare activists have stepped up their efforts to end the work, arguing that

    it is inhumane, ineffective and a waste of taxpayer money. The day after the meeting, activists held a press conference on

    Capitol Hill to mark the introduction of the Great Ape Protection and Cost Savings Act. The act would make all invasive

    chimpanzee research illegal, including private-sector work conducted at the centres and paid for by drug companies. The

    bill’s lead sponsor in the House of Representatives is Roscoe Bartlett (Republican, Maryland), who trained as a physiologist

    and conducted primate research with NASA and with the military in the 1960s. “There’s just no valid argument to continue to

    keep these great apes as they’re now being kept,” Bartlett told the news conference. “Very few of them are used in research

    and I’m not sure that any of them need to be used.” The scrutiny this year adds to the tension felt by researchers who work

    with chimpanzees. That stress is particularly intense at the NIRC, which has been on the defensive ever since a television

    documentary two years ago showed footage of employees there mistreating and neglecting chimpanzees and macaques. The NIRC,

    which is part of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, later paid a fine and has since passed numerous inspections, but

    the exposé helped to propel the activism. In the contest for public support, says Rowell, “our backs are up against the

    wall”. from his outdoor enclosure, where he lives in a large social group, into an individual cage. A technician used a

    needle and syringe to sedate him. He was then strapped to a stretcher and transported by ambulance to Building 52 to receive

    a pre-study physical examination. At 9:27 a.m., Simba was slid off the stretcher — where it became clear that he had

    defecated — and onto a stainless-steel gurney. His fleshy pink gums were relaxed and prominent. He was drooling. “I need to

    do a dental on him,” said Dana Hasselschwert, head of the veterinary-sciences division and one of nine veterinarians on the

    NIRC staff. The veterinarians care for the centre’s chimps, along with its 6,500 macaques and other monkeys. Today, three

    technicians are assisting Hasselschwert with the physical. Speed is important, because the sedative is short-lived. Fully

    alert chimpanzees are strong and sometimes violent. One technician quickly shaved Simba’s forearms, armpits and groin. On the

    skin of his right groin, a tattoo identified him as chimpanzee number xo19. The other technicians placed electrodes on his

    body; his electrocardiogram revealed a regular heart rhythm. Simba’s blood pressure was 143/87 millimetres of mercury —

    normal for him, Hasselschwert said. Blood was drawn from Simba’s left femoral vein; his rectal temperature was taken and was

    normal, at 37.3 °C. His pulse was 104 beats per minute; his respirations 32. Hasselschwert palpated his liver and kidneys and

    found nothing abnormal. But one of the technicians was having trouble catheterizing Simba to collect a urine sample.

    Hasselschwert placed an ultrasound paddle on Simba’s lower abdomen and located his bladder on a nearby screen. An assistant

    quickly shaved the overlying area. “It’s undignified, a male having bikini marks,” Hasselschwert declared. She inserted a

    needle through Simba’s abdominal wall and withdrew three millilitres of pale yellow urine. Simba’s breathing was speeding up,

    a sign of growing wakefulness. “Y’all, we need to move,” Hasselschwert said. She wiped Simba’s drooling gums with paper

    towels, and patted his open palm. His hand was half again as big as hers. “He looks good,” she declared, and, at 9:40 a.m.,

    Simba was wheeled away on the gurney and placed in a wire cage that measured 2 metres long by 1.5 metres wide by 2.2 metres

    high. The cage is one of many in the room, and it can be compressed if an animal refuses to present an appendage for

    injections or blood withdrawal — a procedure that staff call “squeezing up”. Three days later, Simba would be injected with

    the experimental drug. After that, for 72 hours, at regular intervals, his blood would be drawn and his urine collected from

    a pan beneath the cage. He would then be returned to his outdoor enclosure. Last year, the NIRC conducted 23 chimpanzee

    studies, which typically involve between two and six animals. On the day of Simba’s physical, ten chimps were in experiments.

    The remaining chimps are kept in the outdoor cages. To keep the chimps prepared for being research subjects, trainers reward

    them with fruit in exchange for presenting their legs for mock injections, or for urinating in a cup. The chimps are wary of

    strangers, at whom they are wont to hurl gravel or faeces. Chimpanzee studies are expensive, costing anywhere from $20,000 to

    $250,000. And roughly 85% of the revenue for the NIRC comes from a score of pharmaceutical companies that are regular

    customers. (Other centres tilt more towards academic and governmental clients.) As well as conducting drug and vaccine

    trials, the NIRC breeds macaques for several companies, and is a registered importer of the monkeys. The other 15% of the

    centre’s revenue comes from government agencies, mainly the NIH. The biomedical agency owns 124, or roughly one-third, of the

    NIRC chimpanzees, and pays the centre to maintain two breeding colonies of macaques. The centre also conducts chimpanzee

    research under contract for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It owns 11 more chimps, which are kept at

    Bioqual, a company in Rockville, Maryland, where young animals are used in

    “IT IS UNETHICAL NOT TO USE THE CHIMP MODEL FOR CERTAIN INDICATIONS.”

    A STUDY UP CLOSE

    On the same day that the chimp-protection measure was introduced in Congress, staff at the NIRC prepared to start a drug-

    company trial that used two chimpanzees to test the absorption, metabolism and excretion of an experimental medication. One

    of the animals was Simba, an 88-kilogram male around 40 years old. That morning he was coaxed
    S. BREAUX

    Thomas Rowell directs the New Iberia Research Center in Louisiana.

    © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

    1 6 J U N E 2 0 1 1 | VO L 4 7 4 | NAT U R E | 2 6 9

    NEWS FEATURE
    hepatitis-C studies run by the NIH’s infectious-diseases institute. If the IOM were to recommend that the NIH stop supporting

    chimpanzee research, and if the NIH were to comply, this would, theoretically, not affect the drug-company funded research at

    the NIRC and the other centres. But in practice, the directors say, it would hobble their enterprise, not least because some

    two-thirds of the chimpanzees available for research in the United States are owned or supported by the NIH (see ‘Chimpanzee

    Research in the United States’). What is more, they say, the per diem fees and user fees paid by companies for individual

    experiments do not begin to cover the long-term care of the animals, which is supported by NIH infrastructure grants. “The

    lifetime maintenance of chimpanzees requires a long-term commitment of financial support that individually sponsored studies

    do not provide,” the directors wrote in a jointly authored statement to Nature. footage obtained surreptitiously by an HSUS

    investigator who infiltrated the NIRC and worked there for nine months. In one scene from the resulting documentary, aired by

    the ABC news show Nightline, a sedated chimp fell several feet from a bench to the cement floor of a cage. In another scene,

    a sedated chimp is carried by its arms and legs, not on a stretcher. Footage of some of the centre’s monkeys was equally

    damaging. A technician hit a baby on the head after it bit her, and another employee rapped a monkey’s teeth with a metal

    pole. In a different scene, an anaesthetized monkey was allowed to fall from a chest-level counter to the floor of a lab

    room. The show drew strong reactions. Jane Goodall issued a statement saying: “In no lab I have visited have I seen so many

    chimpanzees exhibit such intense fear.” And agriculture secretary Tom Vilsack ordered an investigation of the NIRC’s animal-

    welfare practices. In the following 14 months, the centre underwent inspections by two units of the US Department of

    Agriculture (USDA), the NIH’s Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare in Bethesda, Maryland, the Association for Assessment and

    Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International in Frederick, Maryland, and auditors from every one of the NIRC’s

    pharmaceutical clients. The government agencies also paid surprise visits to the other facilities conducting chimpanzee

    research.

    INSPIRED WORK

    Rowell, who is 52, has been working with chimps most of his life, ever since he took a job cleaning cages at the NIRC when he

    was 17. He quickly got a taste of the value of chimpanzee research, when Carleton Gajdusek shared the 1976 Nobel Prize in

    Physiology or Medicine for discovering that neurodegenerative disorders such as kuru and scrapie are transmitted by

    infectious agents3. As part of his research, Gajdusek injected infected human brain tissue into chimps from the centre. The

    thrill of Gajdusek’s work rubbed off on Rowell. “This is what was so exciting — a teenager off the street working at the

    level that I was — and being involved with something so huge.” Rowell chose his career at that point, and earned a degree in

    veterinary medicine at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine. Hired by the NIRC in 1990, he became its

    director in 1998. Rowell has expanded the centre significantly, from about 170 employees in 1998 to 249 today, and from 4,560

    primates in 1998 to 6,860 today. He also strengthened the NIRC’s experimental credentials and abilities, which has made the

    centre highly attractive to the pharmaceutical industry. In the years since Rowell first started working at the facility,

    support for chimp research has slowly eroded around the world. The United States stopped importing chimpanzees after signing

    a 1973 treaty banning trade in endangered species. When the AIDS epidemic hit, the NIH launched a breeding programme for

    chimpanzees, but the agency declared a moratorium on breeding in 1995, after it became clear that chimps were a poor model

    for the disease. Soon, countries started to outlaw chimp research completely. In 1997, the United Kingdom took that step.

    Another eight countries followed suit in the next decade, and last year, the European Union outlawed great-ape

    experimentation. Only one pharmaceutical company, GlaxoSmithKline, has dropped chimp research, at least publicly. It

    announced in 2008 that “the case for using great apes in the future is less clear than it may have been previously”.

    Opponents of chimp research have painted the United States as an outlier for continuing to allow such experiments. That

    charge irks the directors of the chimpanzee centres. Responding to a request from Nature, the directors catalogued 27

    chimpanzee studies carried out at their centres by foreign companies or scientists since 2005. “The Europeans did not ban

    their companies from coming to the United States,” says John VandeBerg, director of the Southwest National Primate Research

    Centre in San Antonio, Texas, another of the centres that conducts chimp research. “And I can assure you they are not going

    to ban the importation of drugs into their countries that are developed using chimpanzees.” In the United States, public

    pressure to shut down the research intensified after the television exposé. The show contained video

    “STOP USING THE EXCUSE THAT CHIMPS ARE ESSENTIAL TO THIS RESEARCH.”

    THE CASE FOR RESEARCH

    In May 2010, the NIRC paid $18,000 to the USDA to settle six alleged violations of the Animal Welfare Act, such as leaving

    sedated adult chimps unattended with nursing infants. As part of the agreement, the centre neither admitted nor denied that

    the violations took place, or that they were, in fact, violations. But the NIRC has since retrained employees in, for

    instance, keeping animals safe when they are sedated. Rowell says that he watched all ten hours of undercover video footage

    that the HSUS turned over to the NIH. He concedes that there were moments of carelessness and one case of inappropriate

    behaviour, when the technician hit the infant monkey. But he says that the undercover operative — who was working as an aide

    — bears responsibility for the fall involving the sedated monkey. It was her job to protect the animal, but she had stepped

    away to film the room from a distance. Overall, he says, “I was proud of what I saw”. Now, focused by the IOM study, he is

    going on the offensive. Others are also speaking up, such as Christopher Walker, a hepatitis-C researcher based at Nationwide

    Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, who is the main academic customer at the NIRC. Walker is part of a team funded by a

    five-year, $12.5-million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in Seattle, Washington, to try to develop a drug for

    hepatitis C that reinvigorates exhausted immune-system cells called T cells; he also relies on NIH grants. Walker has not

    spoken to the press before about his work with
    J. BREAUX

    Outdoor enclosures at the NIRC house chimps in social groups.

    2 7 0 | NAT U R E | VO L 4 7 4 | 1 6 J U N E 2 0 1 1

    © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

    FEATURE NEWS

    CHIMPANZEE RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES

    This year, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) will spend US$12 million maintaining chimps for research and providing

    care for retired animals. Three centres conduct invasive research, one does behavioural work and two care for chimps not

    currently involved in research. The $12 million does not include extramural grants.

    YERKES NATIONAL PRIMATE RESEARCH CENTER
    Behavioural studies only.

    0 CHIMPANZEES
    NIH-OWNED CHIMPS

    Testing of antiviral drugs for hepatitis A, B and C. Studies of immune response to hepatitis C and testing of monoclonal

    antibodies for lymphoma.

    SOUTHWEST NATIONAL PRIMATE RESEARCH CENTER

    86 53
    NEW IBERIA RESEARCH CENTER

    ALAMOGORDO PRIMATE FACILITY
    Chimps in semiretirement. Data gathered only from annual physical examinations.

    CHIMP HAVEN

    Cares for chimps retired from research.

    22 76

    Studies on drug safety and e cacy for pharmaceutical rms. Biological studies of hepatitis C. Testing of Ebola vaccine that

    could be used to vaccinate wild chimpanzees.

    360*

    *Also owns 11 chimps used in research at a company in Maryland

    AND FOREIGN CONNECTIONS
    MICHALE E. KEELING CENTER
    Tests vaccines and therapies for hepatitis C. Studies on disorders such as diabetes, uterine cancers and cardiovascular

    disease. Although many countries do not allow research on chimpanzees, foreign researchers have carried out 27 studies

    involving chimpanzees at US centres since 2005.

    76

    ITALY: DENMARK: JAPAN: SOUTH KOREA: CANADA: AUSTRALIA: BELGIUM: FRANCE: SPAIN:

    8 5 5 3 2 1 1 1 1

    chimpanzees; he has been afraid of being targeted by animal-rights activists. But he is talking now, he says, “because we are

    reaching a critical decision point”. Walker’s work focuses on unravelling the role of cellular immunity in hepatitis-C

    infection, which often leads to liver cancer, a disease that is almost always fatal without a liver transplant. While working

    at a firm called Chiron in Emeryville, California, in the 1990s, Walker did the scientific groundwork4,5 in chimpanzees that

    led Merck to develop a hepatitis-C vaccine programme. Several Merck employees then spun off Okairos, a Rome-based biotech,

    which has since moved a vaccine into human trials, after publishing proof-of-concept work in chimpanzees6. “The chimpanzees

    were absolutely critical,” Walker says, in establishing that immune-system cells called T-cells have an important role in

    controlling the hepatitis-C virus, and that any successful vaccine would need to generate a T-cell response. Walker is a

    strong believer that chimpanzee studies continue to be needed not only for developing a hepatitis-C vaccine, but also for

    testing the safety of new, and potentially risky, medicines to treat both hepatitis C and B. He points, for instance, to

    research published in 2009 that showed RNA silencing to be effective in controlling hepatitis-C infection in chimps7. Some

    others who use chimpanzees see few remaining justifications for experiments on the animals. Michael Houghton, a virologist at

    the University of Alberta in Edmonton, and a co-discoverer of the hepatitis-C virus, says that in research related to that

    virus, “we do not need the chimp any more for diagnostic development or for antiviral-drug development as we have the

    infected human available”. The risk-tobenefit ratio for infected people in such studies is low enough to justify testing in

    humans, he says. Still, Houghton supports chimpanzee use for hepatitis-C vaccine development, because vaccines must be tested

    in uninfected individuals. He also supports studies NATURE.COM in chimpanzees for the development of riskier For more on

    chimp immunotherapies against the disease. “As incon- science, see: veniencing tens of chimpanzees impacts the health

    go.nature.com/5uusv2

    of millions of humans, it is unethical not to use the chimp model for certain indications,” says Houghton. He also believes

    that it would be unwise not to keep humanely treated chimps available in sanctuaries in case of bioterrorist attacks; the

    animals could be used to study the transmission of infectious bioweapons as well as vaccines and therapies, he says.

    Activists, though, see no rationale for continuing tests on chimps, partly, they say, because ever-more sophisticated in

    vitro methods make it unnecessary8. They also argue that, despite the genetic similarities between chimps and humans, they

    have relevant differences in, for instance, immune-response genes9, and that differences in gene expression make chimps weak

    as a biological model. “Stop using the excuse that chimps are essential to this research,” says John Pippin, a physician who

    is senior medical and research adviser for the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine in Washington DC. By the end of

    the year, the IOM committee will offer its own analysis of whether chimp research is scientifically warranted. The

    committee’s report will be the most weighty pronouncement on the issue so far in the United States, but it may not settle the

    debate. The ongoing controversy has taken a toll on some of those who work with chimpanzees. Rowell says he does not take the

    same amount of pleasure in his work that he did five years ago. “I’m exhausted,” he says. Still, he vows to stay in the job.

    “It’s not something that I do. It’s who I am.” ¦ SEE EDITORIAL P.251 Meredith Wadman is a reporter for Nature based in

    Washington DC.
    1.     2.     3.     4.     5.     6.     7.     8.     9.     Nature 467, 507–508 (2010). Nair, H. et al. Lancet

    375, 1545–1555 (2010). Gajduesk, D. C., Gibbs, C. J. & Alpers, M. Nature 209, 794–796 (1966). Grakoui, A. et al. Science 302,

    659–662 (2003). Shoukry, N. H. et al. J. Exp. Med. 197, 1645–1655 (2003). Folgori, A. et al. Nature Med. 12, 190–197 (2006).

    Lanford, R. E. et al. Science 327, 198–201 (2010). Masaki, T. et al. J. Virol. 84, 5824–5835 (2010). Bettauer, R. H. J. Med.

    Primatol. 39, 9–23 (2010).
    1 6 J U N E 2 0 1 1 | VO L 4 7 4 | NAT U R E | 2 7 1

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    Paper instructions: Write a two- to four-page paper in which you present a cultural picture of yourself by describing how your personal cultural background has influenced who you are today

    Paper instructions:
    Write a two- to four-page paper in which you present a cultural picture of yourself by describing how your personal cultural background has influenced who you are today. Comment on how feeling positive about your culture helps you accept other cultures more and/or how it might do the opposite. Reflect on physical characteristics, language, religion, family customs, and/or traditions. Also, think about behaviors like dress, music, dance, family stories, holidays, and celebrations. Remember that this is a formal assignment. Tie your paper to the concepts we have been reading about this week.

    I am of Jewish descendants, married to a black man. I accept the culture of both of what myself and my husband have been through from past generations. As my husband says that period of time (slavery) was not during his time and for me Hitler was not during my time but I must remember what they all went through so as not to be ill toward any culture.

    This assignment will build toward your Philosophy of Diversity in Week 5.
    Value of this assignment: 7 Points
    Week One Written Assignment Grading Criteria
    Content Criteria 4 Points

    In a 2 to 4 page paper, the student provides a cultural picture of him or herself including:

    A description of how your personal background has influenced who you are today
    A reflection on personal characteristics:
    physical characteristics,
    Language
    Religion
    Family customs and/or traditions

    Student compares/contrasts/integrates theory/subject matter with personal/experience.

    Describes how the topic area impacts your experience or may impact it in the future.

    Connects course concepts with personal experience.

    Content is comprehensive/accurate/persuasive.

    Displays an understanding of relevant theory.

    Major points supported by specific details/examples.

    Shows, analyzes, and synthesizes theory/ practice to develop new ideas and ways of conceptualizing and performing.

    Writing and Organization Criteria 1 Point

    The central theme/purpose of the paper is clear.

    The structure is clear, logical, and easy to follow.

    The tone is appropriate to the content and assignment.

    The thoughts are clear and include appropriate beginning, development, and conclusion.

    Paragraph transitions are present, logical, and maintain the flow throughout the paper.

    Sentences are complete, clear, and concise.

    Sentences are well constructed, with consistently strong, varied sentences.

    Sentence transitions are present and maintain the flow of thought.

    Rules of grammar, usage, and punctuation are followed.

    The paper uses words and language that are inclusive, clear, and unambiguous.

    Spelling is correct.

    Research Criteria 1 Point

    The paper includes a summary and analysis of research materials that are relevant to the assignment, e.g. scholarly journals, professional articles, legal documents, government documents, legal decisions, media clips, software, measurement instruments, websites, personal communication, etc.

    Professional/scholarly journals are peer reviewed and focus on the profession/application of psychology (located on Proquest, EBSCOHost, PsycNET, etc.). Non-scholarly articles include newspapers, periodicals, secular magazines, etc, and are not peer reviewed. Websites not approved include wilkipedia.com and about.com.

    Research focuses on the most current information (past five to ten years) except when citing seminal works (e.g. Freud, Erickson, etc.).

    Paper includes the appropriate number of references required by the assignment.

    When appropriate, the paper addresses ethical considerations in research.

    Style Criteria 1 Point

    The paper is in the appropriate APA format used by the institution/program (e.g. the 6th edition).

    The paper is double-spaced and in the appropriate length required by the assignment

    The paper includes an APA style cover page.

    The paper includes an Abstract that is formatted to support the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    The paper properly uses headings, font styles, and white space as outlined in the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    The paper includes an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.

    The paper addresses the topic of the paper with critical thought.

    The paper concludes with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.

    Citations of original works within the body of the paper follow the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition) guidelines.

    The paper includes a References Page that is completed according to the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    Total Possible Points 7 Points

    Please make sure that you include everything that is asked.

    Cultural picture of Cheryl Hall

    Paper instructions:
    Write a two- to four-page paper in which you present a cultural picture of yourself by describing how your personal cultural background has influenced who you are today. Comment on how feeling positive about your culture helps you accept other cultures more and/or how it might do the opposite. Reflect on physical characteristics, language, religion, family customs, and/or traditions. Also, think about behaviors like dress, music, dance, family stories, holidays, and celebrations. Remember that this is a formal assignment. Tie your paper to the concepts we have been reading about this week.

    I am of Jewish descendants, married to a black man. I accept the culture of both of what myself and my husband have been through from past generations. As my husband says that period of time (slavery) was not during his time and for me Hitler was not during my time but I must remember what they all went through so as not to be ill toward any culture.

    This assignment will build toward your Philosophy of Diversity in Week 5.
    Value of this assignment: 7 Points
    Week One Written Assignment Grading Criteria
    Content Criteria 4 Points

    In a 2 to 4 page paper, the student provides a cultural picture of him or herself including:

    A description of how your personal background has influenced who you are today
    A reflection on personal characteristics:
    physical characteristics,
    Language
    Religion
    Family customs and/or traditions

    Student compares/contrasts/integrates theory/subject matter with personal/experience.

    Describes how the topic area impacts your experience or may impact it in the future.

    Connects course concepts with personal experience.

    Content is comprehensive/accurate/persuasive.

    Displays an understanding of relevant theory.

    Major points supported by specific details/examples.

    Shows, analyzes, and synthesizes theory/ practice to develop new ideas and ways of conceptualizing and performing.

    Writing and Organization Criteria 1 Point

    The central theme/purpose of the paper is clear.

    The structure is clear, logical, and easy to follow.

    The tone is appropriate to the content and assignment.

    The thoughts are clear and include appropriate beginning, development, and conclusion.

    Paragraph transitions are present, logical, and maintain the flow throughout the paper.

    Sentences are complete, clear, and concise.

    Sentences are well constructed, with consistently strong, varied sentences.

    Sentence transitions are present and maintain the flow of thought.

    Rules of grammar, usage, and punctuation are followed.

    The paper uses words and language that are inclusive, clear, and unambiguous.

    Spelling is correct.

    Research Criteria 1 Point

    The paper includes a summary and analysis of research materials that are relevant to the assignment, e.g. scholarly journals, professional articles, legal documents, government documents, legal decisions, media clips, software, measurement instruments, websites, personal communication, etc.

    Professional/scholarly journals are peer reviewed and focus on the profession/application of psychology (located on Proquest, EBSCOHost, PsycNET, etc.). Non-scholarly articles include newspapers, periodicals, secular magazines, etc, and are not peer reviewed. Websites not approved include wilkipedia.com and about.com.

    Research focuses on the most current information (past five to ten years) except when citing seminal works (e.g. Freud, Erickson, etc.).

    Paper includes the appropriate number of references required by the assignment.

    When appropriate, the paper addresses ethical considerations in research.

    Style Criteria 1 Point

    The paper is in the appropriate APA format used by the institution/program (e.g. the 6th edition).

    The paper is double-spaced and in the appropriate length required by the assignment

    The paper includes an APA style cover page.

    The paper includes an Abstract that is formatted to support the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    The paper properly uses headings, font styles, and white space as outlined in the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    The paper includes an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.

    The paper addresses the topic of the paper with critical thought.

    The paper concludes with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.

    Citations of original works within the body of the paper follow the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition) guidelines.

    The paper includes a References Page that is completed according to the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    Total Possible Points 7 Points

    Please make sure that you include everything that is asked.
    2.
    Cultural picture of Cheryl Hall
    Deadline: 5d 22h May 26, 2014 at 7:00 PM
    Status: Bidding i
    Total bids: 26

    Customer:
    Customer: # #18047
    107 orders completed
    Online
    Local time

    Type of paper:

    Critical thinking

    Topic:

    Cultural picture of Cheryl Hall

    Pages:

    4 pages / 1100 words

    Discipline:

    Psychology and Education

    Type of service:

    Writing from scratch

    Format or citation style:

    APA

    Paper instructions:
    Write a two- to four-page paper in which you present a cultural picture of yourself by describing how your personal cultural background has influenced who you are today. Comment on how feeling positive about your culture helps you accept other cultures more and/or how it might do the opposite. Reflect on physical characteristics, language, religion, family customs, and/or traditions. Also, think about behaviors like dress, music, dance, family stories, holidays, and celebrations. Remember that this is a formal assignment. Tie your paper to the concepts we have been reading about this week.

    I am of Jewish descendants, married to a black man. I accept the culture of both of what myself and my husband have been through from past generations. As my husband says that period of time (slavery) was not during his time and for me Hitler was not during my time but I must remember what they all went through so as not to be ill toward any culture.

    This assignment will build toward your Philosophy of Diversity in Week 5.
    Value of this assignment: 7 Points
    Week One Written Assignment Grading Criteria
    Content Criteria 4 Points

    In a 2 to 4 page paper, the student provides a cultural picture of him or herself including:

    A description of how your personal background has influenced who you are today
    A reflection on personal characteristics:
    physical characteristics,
    Language
    Religion
    Family customs and/or traditions

    Student compares/contrasts/integrates theory/subject matter with personal/experience.

    Describes how the topic area impacts your experience or may impact it in the future.

    Connects course concepts with personal experience.

    Content is comprehensive/accurate/persuasive.

    Displays an understanding of relevant theory.

    Major points supported by specific details/examples.

    Shows, analyzes, and synthesizes theory/ practice to develop new ideas and ways of conceptualizing and performing.

    Writing and Organization Criteria 1 Point

    The central theme/purpose of the paper is clear.

    The structure is clear, logical, and easy to follow.

    The tone is appropriate to the content and assignment.

    The thoughts are clear and include appropriate beginning, development, and conclusion.

    Paragraph transitions are present, logical, and maintain the flow throughout the paper.

    Sentences are complete, clear, and concise.

    Sentences are well constructed, with consistently strong, varied sentences.

    Sentence transitions are present and maintain the flow of thought.

    Rules of grammar, usage, and punctuation are followed.

    The paper uses words and language that are inclusive, clear, and unambiguous.

    Spelling is correct.

    Research Criteria 1 Point

    The paper includes a summary and analysis of research materials that are relevant to the assignment, e.g. scholarly journals, professional articles, legal documents, government documents, legal decisions, media clips, software, measurement instruments, websites, personal communication, etc.

    Professional/scholarly journals are peer reviewed and focus on the profession/application of psychology (located on Proquest, EBSCOHost, PsycNET, etc.). Non-scholarly articles include newspapers, periodicals, secular magazines, etc, and are not peer reviewed. Websites not approved include wilkipedia.com and about.com.

    Research focuses on the most current information (past five to ten years) except when citing seminal works (e.g. Freud, Erickson, etc.).

    Paper includes the appropriate number of references required by the assignment.

    When appropriate, the paper addresses ethical considerations in research.

    Style Criteria 1 Point

    The paper is in the appropriate APA format used by the institution/program (e.g. the 6th edition).

    The paper is double-spaced and in the appropriate length required by the assignment

    The paper includes an APA style cover page.

    The paper includes an Abstract that is formatted to support the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).Cultural picture of Cheryl Hall
    Deadline: 5d 22h May 26, 2014 at 7:00 PM
    Status: Bidding i
    Total bids: 26

    Customer:
    Customer: # #18047
    107 orders completed
    Online
    Local time

    Type of paper:

    Critical thinking

    Topic:

    Cultural picture of Cheryl Hall

    Pages:

    4 pages / 1100 words

    Discipline:

    Psychology and Education

    Type of service:

    Writing from scratch

    Format or citation style:

    APA

    Paper instructions:
    Write a two- to four-page paper in which you present a cultural picture of yourself by describing how your personal cultural background has influenced who you are today. Comment on how feeling positive about your culture helps you accept other cultures more and/or how it might do the opposite. Reflect on physical characteristics, language, religion, family customs, and/or traditions. Also, think about behaviors like dress, music, dance, family stories, holidays, and celebrations. Remember that this is a formal assignment. Tie your paper to the concepts we have been reading about this week.

    I am of Jewish descendants, married to a black man. I accept the culture of both of what myself and my husband have been through from past generations. As my husband says that period of time (slavery) was not during his time and for me Hitler was not during my time but I must remember what they all went through so as not to be ill toward any culture.

    This assignment will build toward your Philosophy of Diversity in Week 5.
    Value of this assignment: 7 Points
    Week One Written Assignment Grading Criteria
    Content Criteria 4 Points

    In a 2 to 4 page paper, the student provides a cultural picture of him or herself including:

    A description of how your personal background has influenced who you are today
    A reflection on personal characteristics:
    physical characteristics,
    Language
    Religion
    Family customs and/or traditions

    Student compares/contrasts/integrates theory/subject matter with personal/experience.

    Describes how the topic area impacts your experience or may impact it in the future.

    Connects course concepts with personal experience.

    Content is comprehensive/accurate/persuasive.

    Displays an understanding of relevant theory.

    Major points supported by specific details/examples.

    Shows, analyzes, and synthesizes theory/ practice to develop new ideas and ways of conceptualizing and performing.

    Writing and Organization Criteria 1 Point

    The central theme/purpose of the paper is clear.

    The structure is clear, logical, and easy to follow.

    The tone is appropriate to the content and assignment.

    The thoughts are clear and include appropriate beginning, development, and conclusion.

    Paragraph transitions are present, logical, and maintain the flow throughout the paper.

    Sentences are complete, clear, and concise.

    Sentences are well constructed, with consistently strong, varied sentences.

    Sentence transitions are present and maintain the flow of thought.

    Rules of grammar, usage, and punctuation are followed.

    The paper uses words and language that are inclusive, clear, and unambiguous.

    Spelling is correct.

    Research Criteria 1 Point

    The paper includes a summary and analysis of research materials that are relevant to the assignment, e.g. scholarly journals, professional articles, legal documents, government documents, legal decisions, media clips, software, measurement instruments, websites, personal communication, etc.

    Professional/scholarly journals are peer reviewed and focus on the profession/application of psychology (located on Proquest, EBSCOHost, PsycNET, etc.). Non-scholarly articles include newspapers, periodicals, secular magazines, etc, and are not peer reviewed. Websites not approved include wilkipedia.com and about.com.

    Research focuses on the most current information (past five to ten years) except when citing seminal works (e.g. Freud, Erickson, etc.).

    Paper includes the appropriate number of references required by the assignment.

    When appropriate, the paper addresses ethical considerations in research.

    Style Criteria 1 Point

    The paper is in the appropriate APA format used by the institution/program (e.g. the 6th edition).

    The paper is double-spaced and in the appropriate length required by the assignment

    The paper includes an APA style cover page.

    The paper includes an Abstract that is formatted to support the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    The paper properly uses headings, font styles, and white space as outlined in the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    The paper includes an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.

    The paper addresses the topic of the paper with critical thought.

    The paper concludes with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.

    Citations of original works within the body of the paper follow the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition) guidelines.

    The paper includes a References Page that is completed according to the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    Total Possible Points 7 Points

    Please make sure that you include everything that is asked.

    The paper properly uses headings, font styles, and white space as outlined in the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    The paper includes an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.

    The paper addresses the topic of the paper with critical thought.

    The paper concludes with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.

    Citations of original works within the body of the paper follow the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition) guidelines.

    The paper includes a References Page that is completed according to the appropriate version of APA Publication Manual (e.g. 6th edition).

    Total Possible Points 7 Points

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