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    Canadian taxation case

    Project description
    The assignment is kind of a taxation case about forms, case study and a short cover letter.

    This assignment requires you to complete a T1 General2013for a client, plus the provincial and federal tax schedules, any other relevant schedules, and calculate an RRSP deduction for a client.A marking rubric will be posted in advance of the due date. Forms available online at www.cra.gc.ca
    Step 1      Write a client case study.The case description should cover all relevant information so that if I completed an income tax return based solely on the written information describing the case, I would be able to do it completely and correctly.
    Include the following variables:
    o    Name, Occupation, Age, other ID as required to fully complete the T1 General
    o    Must include employment income with payroll deductions of appropriate amounts and credits PLUS at least two moredifferent types of income for 2013 – eg interest, rent, dividends, etc.
    o    Calculate and deduct the maximum RRSP contribution for 2013. Assume the client has always fully used his maximum contribution to RRSP in the past (no carry forward). Show what information you required and how you calculated his contribution maximum for 2013 – ie show all details needed to calculate RRSP contribution. What assumptions did you have to make? Do you need a Schedule 7? (Read S7 instructions)
    o    Capital Gains – must include a full description of a transaction that will lead to a taxable capital gain in addition to the other types of income, and include Schedule 3 fully completed.
    o    Charitable Contribution. Must include a charitable contribution and Schedule 9.
    o    Any other variables. Up to 10% bonus for a more complex case (maximum grade 100%).
    Step2     Fully complete the relevant tax forms for the client to submit a complete return.Include all information and applicable credits. Submit all tax forms with your assignment.
    Step 3Go to www.taxtips.ca and enter in your case study. Print off the case study and include with your assignment.The answers from Taxtips should verify your manual answers, and you should make every effort to reconcile the two correctly. If they do not agree, study them and find the source of your error.
    Step 4    In a short cover letter to the client, briefly summarize the tax situation for the year (total income, total tax payable, balance owing or refund) and state how much tax was saved as a result of the RRSP contribution, and the charitable contribution.
    We will be reviewing taxtips in class.Note – when entering capital gains in taxtips, you enter the capital gain, not the taxable capital gain that you enter on the T1 general.Taxtips automatically calculates the taxable capital gain. When entering dividends in taxtips, you enter the cash amount received, not the taxable amount you put on the T1 general. Taxable amounts for capital gains and dividends will appear in a column to the right, and should match your paper forms.
    1    Case text is written in sentence form with proper spelling, grammar, and formatting. It flows logically and is clear. It contains all relevant information required to correctly complete the tax returns. Title page with date, course, name etc.    4
    2    No entries in forms that are not explained by the case description.     4
    3    Includes  all required elements
    ID           3 incomes          Capital gains          RRSP        Charitable    2
    4    All supporting forms are included and completed correctly eg statement of rental income for rental income, S3, S4, S9 for charitable contribution.     4
    5    RRSP Limit
    Correct information, calculation shown, assumptions stated    4
    6    T1 page 1 complete    2
    7    T1 page 2
    Income entries correct and match case    4
    8    T1 page 3
    Deductions entered correctly and match case    2
    9    Schedule 1
    Complete and correct, all relevant credits included, plus any additional as noted in case.    4
    10    ON 428
    Complete and correct    2
    11    T1 page 4
    Complete and correct. Reasonable estimate of total income tax deducted is included and noted in case.    4
    12    Tax tips
    Year, Province ON, Correctly reconciled to match case and forms.    4
    13    Summary letter to client is professional and includes correct information.    4
    14    Overall effort, clarity, information presented in an organized and professional way. Text is typewritten. Forms neatly completed.Cover page, no report cover as requested.     4
    15    No additional, incorrect entries or unnecessary forms.     2
    TOTAL     50
    Additional complexity and schedules included.    5
    Mark (Maximum 50/50)    /50

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    MEASUREMENT-DENSITY

    MEASUREMENT-DENSITY

    . OBJECTIVES The purpose of this lab is to familiarize the student with techniques of measurement and also with the concept of density. B. BACKGROUND Density is defined as MASS divided by VOLUME. Volume can be measured as liquid volume (liters, pints, quarts) or as cubic linear volume (I x w x ht, cm3, in3). If a geometric object has regular dimensions, there may be a formula for calculating the volume (rectangular solid is length x width x height; cylinder is pr2 x height). The mass is determined by weighing. In the metric system, mass is expressed in grams (or kilograms). Once mass and volume are determined, density is calculated directly from the formula D = M / V. C. EQUIPMENT You will need a ruler marked in centimeters, a kitchen scale for weighing in grams, 2 blocks of wood that are different sizes but made of the same type of wood, and a brick. If you have a scale that only measures in ounces and pounds, you can convert to grams. Take the weight in pounds, divide by 2.2, and then multiply by 1,000. If you have a friendly grocer, you may be able to weigh your wood blocks on the scale in the vegetable section. D. PROCEDURES 1. Determine the mass of the first wood block to the nearest gram. If your scale is metric, read the mass directly in grams. Otherwise, convert ounces to pounds, pounds to kilograms, and kilograms to grams. (Example: You weigh the block to be 5 oz. To change ounces to pounds, divide by 16 oz. in a pound. So your measurement of 5 oz. divided by 16 oz/lb equals 0.31 pounds. Next, divide 0.31 by 2.2 and get .1409 kilograms. Finally, multiply .1409 by 1,000 to get 140.9 g. Your measurement to the nearest gram is 141 g.) 2. Measure dimensions of the block in centimeters: Length ____________ Width ____________ Height ____________ Calculate the volume from the formula: V = 1 x w x h Volume cm3

    Calculate density by dividing volume into mass: Density g/cm3

    Repeat measurements and calculations for the second wood block. The density of pure water is 1.0 g/cm3. If an object has a density lower than water, it will float. From your calculations, predict whether the blocks will float. Now put them in a pan of water and verify your answer. If the two blocks were made of the same material, they should have the same density no matter what sizes they are. Are your calculations for density the same for both blocks? If not, consider some sources of error in your measurements. Calculate the density of a brick or other heavy rectangular solid. Should it float? It is possible to determine the volume of objects that are irregular. Instead of measuring dimensions, the object is immersed in water in a container that has accurate markings for liquid volume on its walls. This could be done with a glass measuring cup or a graduated cylinder (from a chemistry laboratory). Fill the measuring cup to the halfway mark. Carefully lower an object into the water, being careful not to splash. After the water surface is calm, read the new water level. The increase in water volume is the volume of the immersed object. This method is only accurate if you have an accurately marked cup or cylinder. OPTIONAL: DETERMINE THE DENSITY OF A SPARK PLUG OR OTHER IRREGULAR OBJECT.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Record all your calculations neatly for your lab report. Answer any questions that were raised in the above discussion. Try to think of some practical applications to using density. Could density be a useful measurement for identifying different metals or other substances? Solve this problem: Archimedes had to protect the king from being swindled. If the king’s new crown had a mass of 2790 g, and he knew the density of gold to be 15g/cm3, how much water must the crown displace when submerged if the crown is pure gold?

    laboratory report should contain the following sections:  (1) Hypothesis, (2) Procedures,
    (3) Observations and Results, and (4) Conclusions.  Make certain you include all four headings with at least a short paragraph for each.  In addition, tables, graphs, and answers to questions may be necessary in the latter two sections.

    HYPOTHESIS
    Scientific research should contain a preliminary statement of the expected outcome of the experiment.  This can include predictions of the specific experiment or the general anticipated result.  If you are merely doing an observation and have no idea of the outcome, you cannot make an actual hypothesis.  Instead, make a short statement of the purpose of the observation.  However, if you have preconceived ideas of the outcome, include them in this section, and then see how they compare to the results.

    PROCEDURES
    Even though you are told what to do, write a paragraph of the specific steps you actually took in doing the experiment or observation.  Because you are coming up with your own equipment, your procedures will be of particular interest.

    OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
    This is where you should make a detailed statement of the outcome of your experiment.  Record all your pertinent observations in a clear, readable form.  Arrange your data in tables (such as measurements and calculations you make).  Answer any questions asked in this Study Guide, marking these clearly so that they can be easily found.

    CONCLUSIONS
    Your conclusions should include a comparison between the outcome of the experiment and your initial predictions made in the hypothesis.  In cases where you are attempting to recreate a physical constant, compare your number to the accepted value, using the formula for experimental error:

    Experimental Error Equation

    If you find a large difference in your results from the expected value or if your anticipated observations are not the same as your actual observations, try to identify possible sources of error or reasons for the difference in the hypothesis and results

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    PHASES OF THE MOON

    PHASES OF THE MOON

    The astronomy labs may take several days of observation, especially if the sky gets cloudy. Start these labs soon after you start this course. A. OBJECTIVES This lab is presented to show what can be observed of the moon’s motions and how they are manifested in its illuminated shape. B. BACKGROUND Most of the movement we detect in the sky is due to the earth spinning under the sky. The sun, moon, and stars appear to rise each day or night in the east and set in the west, but this is merely apparent motion caused by the earth’s rotation. We must find other more subtle indications of actual movement in celestial objects. The Moon: We can observe the phases of the moon in order to detect the moon’s movement as it orbits the earth. When it is between the earth and the sun, it is not visible and is called the NEW MOON. On the other extreme, 2 weeks later, it is on the opposite side of the earth from the sun. This is the FULL MOON phase, and the entire face of the moon that we can see is illuminated. Halfway between new and full phase, the moon is in its first quarter or third quarter phase, and we then see only half of the circle that faces us. Less than a quarter moon is a “crescent,” and more than a quarter is a “gibbous” moon. The different phases of the moon actually tell us that the moon has changed its location and we are seeing it in a different perspective. They tell us that the moon is moving. C. EQUIPMENT A compass will be very helpful, but if you know your directions in relationship to city streets, you can estimate directions. Most calendars will inform you of the dates for major moon phases. D. PROCEDURES Check the calendar to see when the next NEW MOON is scheduled. 1. Observe the western sky at sunset, and verify that the moon is not visible. Take a compass reading of the sun just as it hits the horizon. Is it due west? You can use this information for the laboratory about the sun.

    2.

    Observe the sky at sunset every subsequent night (the moon may still be invisible the next night, but don’t give up). Notice that the moon has different stars around it each time you observe. This also shows that the moon is moving in a separate manner from the sky. Record the shape of the moon and its position. Estimate both the compass direction of the moon at sunset as well as the approximate elevation of the moon in the sky (vertical is 90o and halfway up is 45o, or just say low, moderate, or high). By the time the moon reaches first quarter phase, you should be able to see the moon throughout the afternoon. It will be in the southeast sky as it is rising to its high point close to sunset.

    Continue your observations until the moon is not yet up at sunset. What phase of the moon is it now? How long did it take to go from new moon to this point?

    E.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Make a chart of your observations, and answer the following questions. How long does it take the moon to go through all its phases? If you consider that the moon travels 360° in its orbit, how many degrees does it travel in one day (360 divided by number of days for a complete orbit)? This is the amount of change in the compass direction you should have observed from one day to the next, if you observed at the same time each night. Depending on the time of year, there may be a very bright object in the western sky at sunset. This is the planet Venus. It is a striking object and emphasizes the change in position of the moon from night to night. If you are an early riser, you can continue your moon observations in the morning before dawn. The third quarter moon dominates the very early morning hours and continues to be visible during morning daylight. Try to see when the 3/4 moon sets. Summarize your observations.

    F.

    APPLICATIONS 1. Make a drawing showing the earth, sun, and moon. Show where the moon would be positioned at the new, first-quarter, full, and third-quarter phases. The Islamic calendar uses 12 lunar months of 30 days each. If the month of Ramadan begins this year on October 15th (western calendar), on what day will it begin next year?

    laboratory report should contain the following sections:  (1) Hypothesis, (2) Procedures,
    (3) Observations and Results, and (4) Conclusions.  Make certain you include all four headings with at least a short paragraph for each.  In addition, tables, graphs, and answers to questions may be necessary in the latter two sections.

    HYPOTHESIS
    Scientific research should contain a preliminary statement of the expected outcome of the experiment.  This can include predictions of the specific experiment or the general anticipated result.  If you are merely doing an observation and have no idea of the outcome, you cannot make an actual hypothesis.  Instead, make a short statement of the purpose of the observation.  However, if you have preconceived ideas of the outcome, include them in this section, and then see how they compare to the results.

    PROCEDURES
    Even though you are told what to do, write a paragraph of the specific steps you actually took in doing the experiment or observation.  Because you are coming up with your own equipment, your procedures will be of particular interest.

    OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
    This is where you should make a detailed statement of the outcome of your experiment.  Record all your pertinent observations in a clear, readable form.  Arrange your data in tables (such as measurements and calculations you make).  Answer any questions asked in this Study Guide, marking these clearly so that they can be easily found.

    CONCLUSIONS
    Your conclusions should include a comparison between the outcome of the experiment and your initial predictions made in the hypothesis.  In cases where you are attempting to recreate a physical constant, compare your number to the accepted value, using the formula for experimental error:

    Experimental Error Equation

    If you find a large difference in your results from the expected value or if your anticipated observations are not the same as your actual observations, try to identify possible sources of error or reasons for the difference in the hypothesis and results

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    NORTH SKY CONSTELLATIONS

    NORTH SKY CONSTELLATIONS

    This lab is written for people living in the Northern Hemisphere. If you are in the Southern Hemisphere, you must get a star chart and determine the Southern constellations to use for this exercise. If you live in a city, only a few stars will be visible because of the glare from the lights. For most cities, you can still make some significant observations with what you see. If you wish to learn constellations, get a copy of Sky and Telescope or Astronomy magazines from the library or newsstand. A star chart that also tells the location of any visible planets will be in the magazine.

    **ALTERNATIVE EXERCISE: If you have difficulty seeing constellations from in town or if the weather remains cloudy for many days in a row, I suggest that you simulate this lab using an online computer program showing the night sky. Several can be downloaded for free. Use a search program (e.g., Google) and type in the name, “Skyglobe”, “Stellarium” or general terms such as “night sky chart.” Each program has unique operating procedures that must be learned in order to observe the simulated movement of the north sky over the course of 24 hours. Following are instructions for the program “Skyglobe”.
    Once you have “Skyglobe” running, set the location to your own position by typing “L” and then selecting the city that is closest to you. Next, advance the time to early evening by pressing the “H” key once for each hour of time. Finally, press “N” for a view of the north sky. You can locate the Little and Big Dippers along with Cassiopea and watch them change location as you advance the time hour by hour. For further observations of the eastern and western skies, type “E” or “W.” A. OBJECTIVES The intent of the exercise is to show the observer that the night sky appears to revolve overhead. This is actually due to the earth’s rotation. B. BACKGROUND The stars appear to change position in the sky during the night due to the earth’s rotation. You will not detect this motion during a short period of observation, but the stars will make a complete revolution through the sky during a 24-hour period. They are back at their starting position by the next night at the same time, so you probably think the sky never moved. The stars in the northern sky follow a circular path, revolving around a central pivot, the North Star (Polaris). If you kept a camera lens open all night while pointed at the north sky, the star tracks would make a big circle of light. Three to five constellations are always visible in the northern sky, depending on the amount of city glare. These are Ursa Major (Big Dipper), Ursa Minor (Little Dipper), Cassiopeia, Cephus, and Draco. In the summer, the Big Dipper is dominant, and in winter, Cassiopeia (shaped like a crooked “W”) is most obvious. 18

    C.

    EQUIPMENT You may need a compass to determine north unless you have a grasp of local direction.

    D.

    PROCEDURES 1. Locate the North Star by one of the following methods (it is not very bright, so you will have to work at it): a. The North Star should be almost due north at an elevation in the sky equal to the latitude of your location. (If you live in Denver at 40oN, the North Star will be 40o up from the horizon.) The two end stars of the Big Dipper are the pointing stars. See Figure 1 for a sketch of the Big Dipper. Draw an imaginary line through the pointing stars, and they will lead you to the North Star. There is a third method if your sky is relatively dark (not much glare). You may be able to see the entire Little Dipper. It is smaller and curved differently than the Big Dipper. The North Star is the last star in the handle of the Little Dipper. * * * Big Dipper * * * * * * * * * Pointing stars ———– * ——- * —————————————> Figure 1 * North Star Little Dipper

    b.

    c.

    2.

    Picture the north sky as the face of a clock with the NORTH STAR in the center. Think of the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia as hands on this imaginary clock, and record the “imaginary hour” to which they point. Come back two hours later, and make the same observation. If possible, go out again two hours later OR get up before sunrise and make the same observation.

    3.

    Go out the next night at the same time you started, and observe once more. 19

    E.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Send in your table of observations, and summarize what you observed. Which way were the stars appearing to rotate (clockwise or counterclockwise)? If the northern stars go through a complete rotation every 24 hours, how far on the imaginary clock do they move every hour of real time? The stars in the rest of the sky do not rotate in a circle but rise from the eastern horizon and set beyond the west. Why do the northern stars appear to take a different path?

    F.

    APPLICATIONS 1. 2. If you lived at the equator (Latitude 0o), where would you find the North Star? If you lived in Buenos Aires, Argentina (Latitude 34oS), where would the North Star be, and what would you see when you looked at the north sky?

    laboratory report should contain the following sections:  (1) Hypothesis, (2) Procedures,
    (3) Observations and Results, and (4) Conclusions.  Make certain you include all four headings with at least a short paragraph for each.  In addition, tables, graphs, and answers to questions may be necessary in the latter two sections.

    HYPOTHESIS
    Scientific research should contain a preliminary statement of the expected outcome of the experiment.  This can include predictions of the specific experiment or the general anticipated result.  If you are merely doing an observation and have no idea of the outcome, you cannot make an actual hypothesis.  Instead, make a short statement of the purpose of the observation.  However, if you have preconceived ideas of the outcome, include them in this section, and then see how they compare to the results.

    PROCEDURES
    Even though you are told what to do, write a paragraph of the specific steps you actually took in doing the experiment or observation.  Because you are coming up with your own equipment, your procedures will be of particular interest.

    OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
    This is where you should make a detailed statement of the outcome of your experiment.  Record all your pertinent observations in a clear, readable form.  Arrange your data in tables (such as measurements and calculations you make).  Answer any questions asked in this Study Guide, marking these clearly so that they can be easily found.

    CONCLUSIONS
    Your conclusions should include a comparison between the outcome of the experiment and your initial predictions made in the hypothesis.  In cases where you are attempting to recreate a physical constant, compare your number to the accepted value, using the formula for experimental error:

    Experimental Error Equation

    If you find a large difference in your results from the expected value or if your anticipated observations are not the same as your actual observations, try to identify possible sources of error or reasons for the difference in the hypothesis and results

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    ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY

    A.

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this lab is to permit the student to calculate a standard physical constant from experimental data.

    B.

    BACKGROUND All objects fall at the same acceleration caused by the pull of gravity unless the fall is balanced by air resistance. This acceleration is constant for all objects at the same elevation. On the average, it is calculated as 9.8 m/sec.2 The classical way to determine the acceleration due to gravity (g) is to observe a falling object and measure its velocity during adjacent intervals. An increase in the velocity means that the object is accelerating as it falls. On campus, there is equipment that fires a spark through a slip of paper as it moves through the instrument. The spark is timed to fire 60 times a second and is used as a timing device. If you measure the distance between marks, you know the distance it traveled in 1/60 second and so you can calculate the velocity (v = d / t). By calculating the velocity in two sequential intervals, you can then subtract the smaller from the larger to get their difference. The change in velocity, divided by the time of the interval, gives the ACCELERATION (a = (v – vo) / t). This is the acceleration due to gravity. A second way to determine the value of the acceleration due to gravity (g) is by using a pendulum. A swinging pendulum is actually falling as it swings. All that is necessary for the calculation is to know the length of the pendulum wire and the time it takes to make one complete swing. Below is the equation: g = 4p2 (L / T2)

    p = 3.14

    C.

    EQUIPMENT 1. 2. Part 1: Simulated paper strip, metric rule, calculator Part 2: Playground swing, tape measure, stopwatch or watch with second hand

    D.

    PROCEDURES 1. Part 1 The narrow rectangle in figure 1 represents an actual paper that I dropped through our laboratory sparker at ORU. The bottom of the paper was weighted with a metal clip to cause it to fall freely. As it fell, sparks were sent through it every 1/60 second, making marks that are represented on figure 1 as +’s.

    26

    a.

    First, circle five consecutive marks. Starting from the end of the strip labeled “top,” measure the distance in meters from the first to the second mark. Then measure the distance from the second to the third, the third to the fourth, and the fourth to the fifth. Record these distance measurements in the chart below. Next, divide each distance by 1/60 second to determine the velocity of the falling paper through each interval. (NOTE: It is the same to multiply distance by 60 as it is to divide it by 1/60 and is easier to calculate.) Third, subtract the velocity of the first interval from the second, and record this difference in the chart. Also subtract the second from the third and the third from the fourth. Finally, divide each velocity difference by 1/60 second (that is, multiply by 60) to find the acceleration of the paper as it fell. Average the three values you got for acceleration due to gravity, and compare it to the expected value of 9.80 m/s2 using the experimental error formula. Base

    b.

    c.

    d.

    e.

    Top + + + + + + + +

    Distance (m)

    Velocity (m/s)

    Vel. Difference

    Acceleration

    Average Acceleration 2. Part 2

    m/ss

    Have a friend go with you to the park. (You can use the same friend as in Lab #7 if he or she is still your friend after that weigh in.) Have your helper get swinging as high as he or she can, and then have your friend stop pumping. Time the swing from its high point to the other high point and then back to where you started the timing. Record this time in seconds as the time period of the swing.

    Measure the chains of the swing from the swing seat to the swivel attachments (in meters). If you don’t have a metric measure, multiply the total length in inches by 2.54 to get centimeters and divide by 100 to get meters. Repeat the timing of the swing two more times to get three values. Use the average of the three times, and plug it into the following equation along with the chain length. Be sure to use the square of the time. g = 4 p2 (L/T2) E. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Include all your calculations and measurements in your lab report. Compare your experimental values to the accepted average value of 9.8 m/sec2. Use the following formula as you did in the probability lab: Experimental Error =

    p = 3.14

    Theoretical – Experimental x 100 Theoretical

    What are some sources of error you can identify in this experiment? F. REVIEW AND PRACTICE Compare two pendulums by tying a weight (such as a large bolt) onto a string. Time how long it takes the pendulum to complete a full swing when the string is short and again when the swing is long. If you want to make the pendulum move faster, what should you do to the string length? How does the above discussion apply to a pendulum clock that is running slow? G. IMPORTANT NOTE Refer to Appendix B, “Analysis of Acceleration Due to Gravity Exercise,” on pp. 74-75 of this Study Guide. You must use this appendix to analyze the data from this lab as part of Assignment III. Students with General Education ePortfolios must submit a hard copy of this paper along with the rest of Assignment III and must submit this paper via ePortfolio to Dr. Enrique Valderrama. It should be uploaded under the main heading of “Intellectually Alert,” under the subheading of “Critical Thinking,” and under the section named “Acceleration of Gravity Measurement Lab Report (PSC 101L).” Students who do not have a General Education ePortfolio will simply submit a hard copy of this paper along with the rest of Assignment III. For more information, consult Appendix C, “About ePortfolio,” on pp. 76-80 of this Study Guide and Appendix D, “Acceleration of Gravity Measurement Lab Report Rubric,” on pp. 81-83 of this Study Guide.

    laboratory report should contain the following sections:  (1) Hypothesis, (2) Procedures,
    (3) Observations and Results, and (4) Conclusions.  Make certain you include all four headings with at least a short paragraph for each.  In addition, tables, graphs, and answers to questions may be necessary in the latter two sections.

    HYPOTHESIS
    Scientific research should contain a preliminary statement of the expected outcome of the experiment.  This can include predictions of the specific experiment or the general anticipated result.  If you are merely doing an observation and have no idea of the outcome, you cannot make an actual hypothesis.  Instead, make a short statement of the purpose of the observation.  However, if you have preconceived ideas of the outcome, include them in this section, and then see how they compare to the results.

    PROCEDURES
    Even though you are told what to do, write a paragraph of the specific steps you actually took in doing the experiment or observation.  Because you are coming up with your own equipment, your procedures will be of particular interest.

    OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
    This is where you should make a detailed statement of the outcome of your experiment.  Record all your pertinent observations in a clear, readable form.  Arrange your data in tables (such as measurements and calculations you make).  Answer any questions asked in this Study Guide, marking these clearly so that they can be easily found.

    CONCLUSIONS
    Your conclusions should include a comparison between the outcome of the experiment and your initial predictions made in the hypothesis.  In cases where you are attempting to recreate a physical constant, compare your number to the accepted value, using the formula for experimental error:

    Experimental Error Equation

    If you find a large difference in your results from the expected value or if your anticipated observations are not the same as your actual observations, try to identify possible sources of error or reasons for the difference in the hypothesis and results

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    LIGHT AND LENSES

    LIGHT AND LENSES

    A. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this exercise is to show how light behaves as it is bent while passing through glass lenses. This behavior is termed “refraction.” B. BACKGROUND Lenses cause light rays to converge at a focusing point. An image formed by such a line is called a REAL IMAGE. It can be projected on a screen. The enlarged image you see with a magnifying glass when you hold it close to your eye is called a VIRTUAL IMAGE. It is not being projected on the back of your eye, but your mind is interpreting the image to be enlarged. A real image is inverted (upside down), but a virtual image is upright. C. EQUIPMENT You need two magnifying glasses. They could be 2″ and 3″ in diameter, respectively, but must be different sizes. D. PROCEDURES Hold the lens at arm’s length, and observe through it. Is the picture you see erect or upside down? Bring the lens close to your eye, and see the image change. Is the image you see now erect or inverted? Which one is the real image? Go to a room that is at least 15 meters long (if you can’t find one that long, do your best). Stand on the other side of the room or way down a long hallway from a lamp at night or a window in the daytime. Hold the 3″ lens up so that the right source is over your shoulder, and hold a piece of white paper beyond the lens so light shines on it from the lens. Adjust the distance between the lens and paper until an image appears. Is the image inverted or upright? Is it real or virtual? Measure the distance from the lens to the paper (you may need help for this). This is the focal length of the lens, as long as you were able to get more than 15 meters from the light source. The focal length is used to determine how long a telescope has to be in order to be in focus and to determine the distance that film must be located away from a camera lens. Go up close to the light (or window), and repeat the operation. What happened to the image? The distance from the lens to the screen is no longer an accurate measurement of the focal length of that lens. With help, measure the distance from lens to screen and also the distance from lens to the light bulb (or window). Divide the distance to the image by the distance to the light source. This number is the magnification. That is, it tells how many times the image is magnified from the original object.

    Repeat this procedure for the smaller lens. Add the focal lengths of the large and small lenses together. This is the length of a telescope that is in focus when the two lenses are placed at opposite ends of the tube. Finally, hold the smaller lens close to your eye and the larger lens about an arm length away. Look through both lenses at once, and determine whether or not you can see a clear magnified image. If you succeeded, you have made a simple refracting telescope. E. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Record your measurements and observations, and discuss them in your summary. Curved mirrors as well as lenses are used to gather light in many telescopes. F. REVIEW AND PRACTICE 1. List some common objects that use lenses or mirrors for projecting or magnifying images. When you load slides into a projector tray, you are supposed to put them in upside down. Why?

    laboratory report should contain the following sections:  (1) Hypothesis, (2) Procedures,
    (3) Observations and Results, and (4) Conclusions.  Make certain you include all four headings with at least a short paragraph for each.  In addition, tables, graphs, and answers to questions may be necessary in the latter two sections.

    HYPOTHESIS
    Scientific research should contain a preliminary statement of the expected outcome of the experiment.  This can include predictions of the specific experiment or the general anticipated result.  If you are merely doing an observation and have no idea of the outcome, you cannot make an actual hypothesis.  Instead, make a short statement of the purpose of the observation.  However, if you have preconceived ideas of the outcome, include them in this section, and then see how they compare to the results.

    PROCEDURES
    Even though you are told what to do, write a paragraph of the specific steps you actually took in doing the experiment or observation.  Because you are coming up with your own equipment, your procedures will be of particular interest.

    OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
    This is where you should make a detailed statement of the outcome of your experiment.  Record all your pertinent observations in a clear, readable form.  Arrange your data in tables (such as measurements and calculations you make).  Answer any questions asked in this Study Guide, marking these clearly so that they can be easily found.

    CONCLUSIONS
    Your conclusions should include a comparison between the outcome of the experiment and your initial predictions made in the hypothesis.  In cases where you are attempting to recreate a physical constant, compare your number to the accepted value, using the formula for experimental error:

    Experimental Error Equation

    If you find a large difference in your results from the expected value or if your anticipated observations are not the same as your actual observations, try to identify possible sources of error or reasons for the difference in the hypothesis and results

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    CHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS

    A. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this lab is to show the amounts of chemicals that are dissolved to produce significant concentrations in solution. Comparisons are then made with concentration limits that are set for toxic chemicals in our water. B. BACKGROUND Water molecules have the special quality of being polar. The structure of two smaller hydrogen atoms attached to the side of a large oxygen atom is asymmetrical. Consequently, the positive charge of hydrogen is not completely balanced by the negative charge of oxygen, and the molecule has left-over charge. Many compounds are held together by ionic bonds. They are composed of oppositely charged ions (atoms that have gained or lost electrons). When ionic compounds are exposed to water, the positive and negative charges of the water molecules pull the ions out of the structure and encase them in envelopes of water. In this way, many ionic compounds dissolve in water (“the universal solvent”). When they are dissolved, the ions are present in the water but are unable to join together. The more ions that are dissolved in water, the less healthy it is for humans. Some chemicals dissolved by water are toxic when present in even a small amount. Others only affect health when large amounts are dissolved. The mass of a compound that is dissolved in one liter of water is termed the “concentration” and is expressed as milligrams/liter (mg/1) or parts per million (pip). These two units are interchangeable. C. EQUIPMENT You will need a scale capable of weighing in grams or in fractions of an ounce (1 ounce = 28.3 grams; 1 new clean copper penny weighs 2.5 grams). If you cannot find or afford a scale, use the alternative method of measuring the appropriate volume of salt in each step. You will also need a spoon, table salt, a tooth pick, and an empty 2-liter soft drink bottle (or a large measuring cup marked in milliliters or liters). D. PROCEDURES 1. Produce a concentration of saltwater that is close to the salinity of sea water (35,000 mg/1). a. Measure approximately 35 grams (or ½ ounce) of table salt. This mass will fill a small match box (e.g., Red Top matches) (5cm x 3.5 cm x 1.5 cm) rounded at the top.

    b. 2.

    Measure 1 liter of water, and stir in the 35 grams of salt.

    Experiment with the nature of saltwater compared to that of freshwater. a. Put an ice cube in freshwater and another one in your saltwater mixture, and see which one melts first. • The heat transferring characteristics of saltwater are modified. b. Fill one portion of an ice cube tray with saltwater and another portion with freshwater. Put the tray in your freezer, and check it every hour to see what happens. Produce a concentration close to that of tap water. a. Measure approximately 1 gram of salt onto a piece of paper. This amount will almost but not quite cover the bottom of the match box tray. b. Dissolve this amount of salt in a liter of water. This is the maximum amount of dissolved material acceptable for drinking water in most states. Can you taste this amount of salt? Produce a concentration close to the maximum concentration allowable for many chemicals in drinking water. a. Ten salt grains weigh approximately 1 milligram. How many milligrams are in a gram? Therefore, how many grains of salt are in a gram of salt? b. Separate 10 grains of salt from one of your leftover piles of salt, using a toothpick. Drop the 10 salt grains into a liter of tap water. This is the same concentration c. as 1 mg/l (or 1 ppm). d. Taste the water, and see if you can detect any saltiness. e. On the next page is a list of the maximum concentration limits established for the drinking water standards of most states. There are additional toxic materials that are dangerous at concentration levels of 1 part per billion or even several parts per trillion when taken in water for a long period of time. Seeing how dangerous some materials are, think twice before you throw chemicals, batteries, and pesticides in the trash or down the drain. You may be contributing to the pollution of our life support system.

    Optional: If you have some left-over garden seeds or if you have some seeds for sprouts, start some seeds in a moist paper towel or in potting soil.

    Table 13-1 Federal Drinking Water Standards

    ELEMENT (Recommended Limit) Total Dissolved Solids Chlorides Sulfate Nitrate Iron Manganese Copper Zinc Boron Hydrogen Sulfide (Maximum Permissible Limit) Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Selenium Lead Mercury Silver Fluorine E. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

    CONCENTRATION (mg/1) 500 250 250 45 0.3 0.05 1.0 5.0 1.0 0.05

    0.05 1.0 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.002 0.05 1.4-2.4

    Report your observations and answers to questions in a conclusion statement. F. REVIEW AND PRACTICE 1. Check some labels of items in your garage or cleaning closet, and see if you have any of the items listed in the table. Think of some ways that saltwater is used in our outdoor environment. What bad effects might this have? If normal spring water has 500 mg / l of dissolved solids, what is that concentration expressed in ppm? A water sample from the lead and zinc mining area of northeast Oklahoma has the following concentrations: 1.0 mg / l each of zinc, lead, and sulfate. Is this water in violation of the Federal Drinking Water Standards? If so, why?

    laboratory report should contain the following sections:  (1) Hypothesis, (2) Procedures,
    (3) Observations and Results, and (4) Conclusions.  Make certain you include all four headings with at least a short paragraph for each.  In addition, tables, graphs, and answers to questions may be necessary in the latter two sections.

    HYPOTHESIS
    Scientific research should contain a preliminary statement of the expected outcome of the experiment.  This can include predictions of the specific experiment or the general anticipated result.  If you are merely doing an observation and have no idea of the outcome, you cannot make an actual hypothesis.  Instead, make a short statement of the purpose of the observation.  However, if you have preconceived ideas of the outcome, include them in this section, and then see how they compare to the results.

    PROCEDURES
    Even though you are told what to do, write a paragraph of the specific steps you actually took in doing the experiment or observation.  Because you are coming up with your own equipment, your procedures will be of particular interest.

    OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
    This is where you should make a detailed statement of the outcome of your experiment.  Record all your pertinent observations in a clear, readable form.  Arrange your data in tables (such as measurements and calculations you make).  Answer any questions asked in this Study Guide, marking these clearly so that they can be easily found.

    CONCLUSIONS
    Your conclusions should include a comparison between the outcome of the experiment and your initial predictions made in the hypothesis.  In cases where you are attempting to recreate a physical constant, compare your number to the accepted value, using the formula for experimental error:

    Experimental Error Equation

    If you find a large difference in your results from the expected value or if your anticipated observations are not the same as your actual observations, try to identify possible sources of error or reasons for the difference in the hypothesis and results

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    CHEMICAL REACTIONS

    CHEMICAL REACTIONS

    A. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this lab is to investigate chemical reactions that are common in the home. B. BACKGROUND Some chemicals will rearrange into new substances when they are exposed to reactive chemicals. Generally, both chemicals break down into component atoms and new combinations are produced. C. EQUIPMENT From your kitchen, collect some baking soda, vinegar, an egg, a candle, and matches. D. PROCEDURES 1. Measure about 4 tablespoons of baking soda (NaHCO3) into a bottle (an empty glass pop or ketchup bottle is best). Pour a few ounces of vinegar into the bottle, and put your thumb over the top. Describe the results. Light a candle. Now repeat the above reaction with vinegar and baking soda, making certain not to allow any of the gas in the bottle to escape too soon. Tilt the bottle down but not so far that the liquid flows to the opening. If the gas in the bottle is heavier than air, it will flow out when you release your thumb. Hold the bottle opening over the candle, and take your thumb away. Watch the flame and record your observation. Cases that could form from vinegar (C2H4O2) and bicarbonate of soda (NaHCO3) are HYDROGEN (which explodes), OXYGEN (which causes flames to burn brighter), and CARBON DIOXIDE (which extinguishes flames). Which gas did you make? 2. Put a raw egg (with its shell intact) into a cup of vinegar. Allow it to sit overnight. Describe the results. Eggshell is composed of VaCO3, and vinegar is acetic acid. Mix several teaspoons of table salt into a few ounces of vinegar. Place some dirty, corroded pennies into the solution, and observe. Find a website that describes “safe home cleaners”. Choose one that you can make or find at home and test its effectiveness in cleaning something. Report the results. The bubbling action of the acid-bicarbonate reaction enhances cleaning action. Acid also dissolves any calcium carbonate film built up on the inside of tea kettles. How well did your homemade cleanser work?

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Describe the results of the reactions in a summary.

    F.

    REVIEW AND PRACTICE 1. The reaction between a different acid, hydrochloric acid (HCl), and CaCO3 is as follows: HCl + CaCO3 CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

    Balance this equation so that the same amount of each element is on the left of the arrow as is on the right. 2. Other forms of CaCO3 are cement and limestone. This type of reaction occurs when limestone rocks are dissolved by acidic rain water to form caves. Suggest a way to clean oil stains off of your cement driveway. The chemical reaction between an acid and a base produces neutral water by combining the H from the acid with the OH from the base. Look at the following reaction, and complete it by writing in what else should be formed. HCl + NaOH H2O +

    laboratory report should contain the following sections:  (1) Hypothesis, (2) Procedures,
    (3) Observations and Results, and (4) Conclusions.  Make certain you include all four headings with at least a short paragraph for each.  In addition, tables, graphs, and answers to questions may be necessary in the latter two sections.

    HYPOTHESIS
    Scientific research should contain a preliminary statement of the expected outcome of the experiment.  This can include predictions of the specific experiment or the general anticipated result.  If you are merely doing an observation and have no idea of the outcome, you cannot make an actual hypothesis.  Instead, make a short statement of the purpose of the observation.  However, if you have preconceived ideas of the outcome, include them in this section, and then see how they compare to the results.

    PROCEDURES
    Even though you are told what to do, write a paragraph of the specific steps you actually took in doing the experiment or observation.  Because you are coming up with your own equipment, your procedures will be of particular interest.

    OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
    This is where you should make a detailed statement of the outcome of your experiment.  Record all your pertinent observations in a clear, readable form.  Arrange your data in tables (such as measurements and calculations you make).  Answer any questions asked in this Study Guide, marking these clearly so that they can be easily found.

    CONCLUSIONS
    Your conclusions should include a comparison between the outcome of the experiment and your initial predictions made in the hypothesis.  In cases where you are attempting to recreate a physical constant, compare your number to the accepted value, using the formula for experimental error:

    Experimental Error Equation

    If you find a large difference in your results from the expected value or if your anticipated observations are not the same as your actual observations, try to identify possible sources of error or reasons for the difference in the hypothesis and results

    PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT :)

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    Employment-At-Will Doctrine

    Due Week 5 and worth 150 points

    Imagine you are a recently-hired Chief Operating Officer (COO) in a midsize company preparing for an Initial Public Offering (IPO). You quickly discover multiple personnel problems that require your immediate attention.

    1.John posted a rant on his Facebook page in which he criticized the company’s most important customer.
    2.Ellen started a blog to protest the CEO’s bonus, noting that no one below director has gotten a raise in two (2) years and portraying her bosses as “know-nothings” and “out-of-touch”
    3.Bill has been using his company-issued BlackBerry to run his own business on the side.
    4.After being disciplined for criticizing a customer in an email (sent from his personal email account on a company computer), Joe threatens to sue the company for invasion of privacy.
    5.One of the department supervisors requests your approval to fire his secretary for insubordination. Since the secretary has always received glowing reviews, you call her into your office and determine that she has refused to prepare false expense reports for her boss.
    6.Anna’s boss refused to sign her leave request for jury duty and now wants to fire her for being absent without permission.
    As an astute manager, you will need to analyze the employment-at-will doctrine and determine what, if any, exceptions and liabilities exist before taking any action. As you proceed with your investigation, you discover the company has no whistleblower policy.

    In preparation for this assignment, use the Internet or Strayer Library to research your state’s employment-at-will policy.

    Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:

    1.Summarize the employment-at-will doctrine discussed in the text and then evaluate three (3) of the six (6) scenarios described by determining:
    a.Whether you can legally fire the employee; include an assessment of any pertinent exceptions to the employment-at-will doctrine.
    b.The primary action(s) that you should take to limit liability and impact on operations; specify the ethical theory that best supports your decision.
    2.Examine your state’s policy on employment-at-will. Analyze at least one (1) real-world example of an employee or employer utilizing your state’s employment-at-will doctrine in the last five (5) years. Include a summary of the main issue and the outcome in the identified real-world example.
    3.Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia is not an acceptable reference and proprietary Websites do not qualify as academic resources.
    Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

    •Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
    •Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
    The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

    •Analyze and apply the concepts of freedom versus responsibility and ethical decision making.
    •Analyze and evaluate laws that protect against discrimination in the workplace.
    •Analyze and evaluate the employment-at-will doctrine and exceptions, as well as the protections afforded whistleblowers.
    •Explore the legal and ethical issues surrounding employee and consumer privacy.
    •Use technology and information resources to research issues in law, ethics, and corporate governance.
    •Write clearly and concisely about law, ethics, and corporate governance using proper writing mechanics.

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    Companies and Employee health Insurance

    Companies and Employee health Insurance

    Paper instructions:
    Review the Health Care Economics Issues HMO Simulation.
    Select either Constructit or E-editor to analyze for your paper.
    Prepare a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you present a profile of the chosen company, including the demographics of the employees, the health care risk factors or potential areas of high utilization, and the premiums the company is willing to pay.

    As a representative of Castor Insurance, your job is to maximize profit and minimize risk for the company. Based on your analysis of potential utilization, provide at least two reasons why each plan could be selected. Then state which plan you would select to sell to your chosen company. What are the reasons for this decision? Why did you not select the other plans offered?

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