Each of the posted listed below where in response to the following:
In this Discussion, you evaluate the theories of prejudice and discrimination in society and examine methods for reducing prejudices in an
applied setting. Responding to the following, Is prejudice inevitable? Make an informed argument in response to this question, using
theories and models of prejudice and discrimination in social psychology. Describe a scenario in which prejudice or discrimination is
evident. Suggest one strategy for its reduction in an applied setting, drawing from a theoretical perspective.
Read the two following postings and respond to them individually, using at least four references per response. Adding your own if
Respond to each one individually, note: Follow–on responses should be significant contributionto the Discussion.
inthe following ways:
• Suggest an alternative strategy for reduction of prejudice or discrimination in response to a colleague’s scenario.
• Offer a different perspective to a colleague’s argument about the inevitability of prejudice and discrimination.
• If neither of the above cannotbe applied, then Introduce a new scenario in which prejudice or discrimination is evident. Suggest
one strategy for its reduction in an applied setting, drawing from a theoretical perspective.
Be sure to support all responses with specific references to all resources used in its preparation.
Response 1 – GK
Although not as prominent as they once were, prejudice and discrimination are still, without a doubt, present in modern society. Both are
closely related in definition, yet they should not be confused with the other. Prejudice refers to a preconceived negative judgment of a
group and its members, whereas discrimination implies the presence of negative behaviour towards that group (Myers, 2013). For example, a
person walks by a school playground late at night and notices a group of young black teens loitering. If he automatically perceives that
they are up to no good, it would be considered as prejudice. On the contrary, teasing an Asian kid in school based on his cultural
background is discrimination.
Over the past decade, terrorism has been a growing threat on the international stage. From the attacks on 9/11, to the recent
bombings in Paris, Muslim extremists have claimed responsibility for countless acts of terror across the globe. Does this mean that all
terrorists are Muslim or all Muslims are terrorists? Of course not. But that doesn’t stop people from finding their own ways to retaliate
against a perceived threat. In 2014, a local mosque in Alberta, Canada, was heavily vandalized after an attack on the parliament building
of Canada (CBC, 2014). In November of 2015, a mosque in Ontario, Canada, was set ablaze two days after the attacks in Paris (CBC, 2015).
Four days after the attacks in Paris, a Muslim mother was assaulted, robbed, and was told to “go back to your country” outside a Toronto
elementary school while she waited to pick up her children (Global News, 2015). Could these events be a coincidence? Based on such close
proximity to the terrorists attacks, I highly doubt the possibility.
Is prejudice inevitable? I believe so because hatred only breeds more hatred. Terrorists attacks are products of their hatred
of western society and an extreme difference in beliefs in where extremists aim to rid the world of infidels. The receivers of these
terrorist attacks will retaliate and launch an attack on those responsible, feeding the vicious circle of hatred. The belief system that
facilitates hatred are focused on ways in which we define our own social identities and those of others (Verkuyten, 2013). In addition, we
perceive our culture is the “good” and that we are threatened by malevolent acts of evil. Therefore, we feel a moral necessity to have a
fight of good against evil (Verkuyten, 2013). A set of three studies by (Das et al, 2012) also suggested that based on the terror
management theory by Greenberg in 1986, the portrayal of terrorism by the media reminds people of their own morality, which leads to
heightened discrimination and prejudice. In other words, humanity’s natural tendency to fear death will make them more alert to potential
threats as a form of defence.
Reducing prejudice and discrimination is no easy task. I feel that our education system is already doing a great job in making
us aware of how dangerous generalization can be. We must continue to be resilient and aware of negative implications present in the media,
and hopefully we can catch ourselves in the act when we paint everyone in a group with the same brush.
Das, E., Bushman, B. J., Bezemer, M. D., Kerkhof, P., & Vermeulen, I. E. (2009). How terrorism news reports increase prejudice against
outgroups: A terror management account. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(3), 453-459.
Myers, D. G., & Twenge, J. M. (2013). Social psychology (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Nielson, K., Shum, D., & Miller, A. (2015, November 17). Muslim woman attacked in Toronto, told to ‘go back to your country’: Police.
Peterborough mosque arson is suspected hate crime. (2015, November 15). CBC News Toronto. Retrieved November 29, 2015,
Town rallies around vandalized Cold Lake Mosque. (2014, October 24). CBC News Edmonton. Retrieved from
Verkuyten, M. (2013).Justifying discrimination against Muslim immigrants: Out‐group ideology and the five‐step social identity model.
British Journal Of Social Psychology, 52(2), 345-360. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.2011.02081.x
Response 2 – JO’B
Prejudice is ‘a socially shared judgement or evaluation of a group including the feelings associated with that judgement’ (Wright & Taylor,
2007, p.433). Much of the research around prejudice has included areas Additional to this, contextual factors are also important when
understanding prejudice (Pettigrew, 1991, Crandall,2002). Given that social groups are sought after by individuals and provide structure to
society (Wright & Taylor, 2007) and that prejudice is a social shared judgment and subject to social and contextual factors, it follows
that a ‘them’ and ‘us’ group situation will naturally occur. This is a result of categorizing identifying and comparing ourselves with
each other (Myers, 2013) and therefore I would argue prejudice is to a certain degree inevitable.
The need to be part of a group can be for many reasons including the need to have an identity. (Myers, 2013). The in-group bias means
people are more likely to perceive the group as positive in an attempt to support the positive self-image, this is not always negative, but
can become a prejudice situation when there is a feeling of superiority over another group. (Myers, 2013). Overt methods to reduce
prejudice such as changes in law can and have been effectively implemented, however Augoustinos & Walker, (1998) identified that at times
there is a more ‘subtle’ prejudice at play which is result of conflicting cognitions towards the outgroup( Wright & Taylor, 2007). In
short, the person thinks they’re not prejudiced, but rationalises their prejudice with validation. A further example of this might be
Gaetner & Dovidio (1986) who cite aversive racism as another example of unconscious prejudice. (Wright & Taylor, 2007).Further evidence to
support why prejudice is inevitable.
Describe a scenario in which prejudice or discrimination is evident
To a certain extent all religion promotes prejudice. As a Christian I would really like to visit Mecca. I can only imagine what it must be
like to be in the presence of so many people omitting so much positive energy. I understand I cannot visit because of my religion. Yet, now
more than ever it can be argued increasing respect for others’ faiths is essential, to be able to do this requires the ability to
investigate and understand. On the face of it, it could be argued that this is a clear example of discrimination on the grounds of
Suggest one strategy for its reduction in an applied setting.
The Crossed Categorization technique proposed by Crisp & Hewstone,1999 might be useful in such cases (Paluck, 2009). The membership of
‘the third group’ would mean the ability to add a multi-faith dimension (a shared membership) to alleviate feelings of discrimination. This
approach has already been successful in supporting multicultural policies (Brewer & Gaertner, 2001;Wright& Taylor, 2007). By concentrating
on what faiths have in common, the idea of an equal status for all and promoting the shared values would help reduce any prejudice. Work at
an institution level (schools) instructional level might be effective, this could be carried out by co-operative learning, fostering
empathy and perspective. (Lustig, 2003;Paluck, 2009). It would be important to emphasis contextual factors throughout history as
similarities which may not be apparent right now may well be apparent throughout time, e.g. going back to my original example, there may
have been a point in time when a Christian place of worship was for Christians only.
Crandall, C. S., Eshleman, A., & O’Brien, L. (2002). Social norms and the expression and suppression of prejudice: The struggle for
internalisation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(3), 359–378. Accessed from Liverpool University Online
Laureate Online.B.V (2014). Week 6: Stereotyping Prejudice and Discrimination. Social Psychology.Laureate Online.B.V. Accessed from
Liverpool University Online
Myers, D. G., & Twenge, J. M. (2013). Social psychology (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw–Hill.
Paluck, E. L., & Green, D.P. (2009). Prejudice reduction: What works? A review and assessment of research and practice. Annual Review of
Psychology, 60(1), 339–367. Accessed from Liverpool University Online
Wright, S. C., & Taylor, D. M. (2007). The social psychology of cultural diversity: Social stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. In
M. A. Hogg & J. Cooper (Eds.), The Sage handbook of social psychology (pp. 432–457). London, England: Sage.
Understanding Prejudice. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.understandingprejudice.org
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For this paper assignment you must visit a major museum in Southern California and select two paintings currently on view, from a time
period and by two different artists that we are dealing with in this course (or their contemporaries), to compare and contrast in order to
elucidate their meaning(s). In making your selection, you should look for two paintings that are similar in content (subject matter) but
dissimilar in their form. Your objective will be to make some claims for how the formal properties of the paintings produce different
meanings and/or evoke contrary moods.
This assignment requires you to conduct detailed formal analyses of the two paintings and is not research-based. You are to compare and
contrast the formal properties of the work: the composition and the arrangement of forms, color choices and combinations, the quality and
types of line and shape used, the manner of paint application and the use of brush strokes, the massing of volumes in space, rendering of
perspective, etc. Please refer to the accompanying document “Guidelines for Writing a Successful Paper” (posted to eCompanion) for a
detailed discussion of how to successfully accomplish the task at hand.
Your paper should be 3-5 typed pages, double-spaced, with one-inch margins. Make sure to number your pages and use 12-point Times New Roman
font. You may include references to lecture material and information from the assigned readings, always with proper citations. Additional
research is not required. Please use proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation and proofread your paper before submission.
You must submit a hardcopy of your paper and upload it to Dropbox on eCompanion (where it will be scanned by TurnItIn.com). Remember to
attach the proof of museum visit, reproductions of the works that you are analyzing and the originality report generated from TurnItIn.com
to your paper. Deviating from these guidelines will adversely affect your grade.
Papers are due at the beginning of lecture on November 30. If you are ill and have a doctor’s note I will grant you an extension. Poor
planning, technological malfunctions, and other excuses will not be granted extensions. Plan to complete the paper in advance of the
deadline in case of any unforeseeable problems.
GUIDELINES FOR WRITING A SUCCESSFUL PAPER
(1) SUCCESSFUL THESIS STATEMENTS AND SUPPORTING EVIDENCE
Successful thesis statements will clearly identify plausible arguments about the two paintings you select. Successful papers will then
support the thesis statements with specific evidence based on what you see in the pair of paintings and what you have learned through
course lectures and readings.
The paper assignment asks for more than just a basic description of the works. Successful papers will demonstrate your abilities to
identify and describe the visual elements in each painting in the pair you select; describe differences and similarities between the two;
convey your ideas clearly; and present your work neatly. Given the space limitation, successful papers will address in great detail only a
few of the most significant differences or similarities between the two paintings based on the information presented in course lectures and
readings. Explain what factors were responsible for the appearance of the differences or similarities.
PLEASE NOTE: In your paper, you do NOT need to address every possible issue that arises or discover “definitive” interpretations for the
two paintings you select. It is important to think about how to organize the information you want to present and how to present it clearly.
Remember that successful papers will combine sufficient details from what you see when you visit the paintings at the museum where they are
located with what you know from course lectures and readings.
Thesis statements should appear in your introduction and should provide a summary of what you explain in the rest of the paper. The initial
thesis statement you draft may guide you through the paper, but then you may need to revise it as you write.
(2) SUCCESSFUL ANALYSES
Successful papers will use answers to the questions below to compare and contrast the two paintings in the pair you select. Answers to the
questions will also constitute evidence that supports the strong thesis statement.
There are two fundamental parts to a formal analysis: visual description and interpretation of meaning. These go hand in hand.
Visual description: Look carefully at the work of art and put into words what you see. Start general and then get specific. Pretend you
have to describe the work to someone who cannot see. Lead the reader by the hand, one step at a time, one detail at a time.
Interpretation of meaning: Every formal detail you bring up in the visual description should relate directly to the larger meaning you are
constructing for the artwork. The main point of this paper is to address these questions: What do these paintings mean? How do they differ?
Why do I think this? What am I seeing on the canvas surface that makes me think this?
Your analysis should include a mention of the artist, date, medium, subject matter, and a thorough analysis of the most important formal
properties of the work (those which support your thesis). Please additional address the following, if relevant to the works you have
location, patron, audience, and function.
(3) SUCCESSFUL ORGANIZATION AND FORMATTING OF YOUR PAPER
Successful papers will include a clever title, an introductory paragraph, a clear thesis statement, a body that develops the thesis
statement with supporting evidence, and a clear conclusion that draws from the information presented in the paper.
TITLE: Choose a title that reflects your thesis, rather than one that restates that you are making a comparison. For example, “A Comparison
of Two Images” is a weaker title, but “The Humanization of the Divine in the Renaissance” is a stronger one.
INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH: Introduce the paintings and ideas that you will develop in the rest of the paper. For example, you may briefly
identify the paintings in the pair you selected and provide a few introductory details about it (i.e., the artist, title, date, etc.).
State your thesis clearly at the end of your introductory paragraph.
THESIS STATEMENT: Write one or two sentences that define the argument you plan to develop in the rest of the paper. Your thesis is the
first signpost that tells the reader what to look for in the rest of your paper. The details you present in the rest of the paper should
refer back to the thesis and support it.
Remember that a strong thesis statement directly responds to the paper assignment. It does more than acknowledge that there are
similarities and differences between the two paintings. A good thesis often identifies specific reasons for the similarities and
differences that the rest of the paper will explain in greater detail. In addition, a strong thesis statement often addresses questions
like “What gives rise to the similarities and differences in the two paintings?”
BODY OF THE PAPER: Write your thesis before you begin writing the assignment. Your thesis should organize the rest of your paper: every
point you mention about the two paintings should be selected because it supports your thesis. You may need to revise the thesis statement
as you write the rest of the paper and refine your ideas.
In general, the body of your paper should be structured into paragraphs that contain evidence that supports your thesis statement.
Occasionally you may need to write a paragraph that provides information that is necessary for you to elaborate upon your argument in a
subsequent paragraph. Everything you describe in your paper should connect it to your argument, so you should avoid extraneous details. For
example, if you write that the figures in a painting are rendered with great volume through the use of light and shade, you should explain
why their treatment in this way is relevant to your argument. Remember, you do not need to describe everything you see. Just describe the
details that help you support your argument.
Think of each well-written paragraph as a single, coherent unit. For example, a well-written paragraph often begins with a topic sentence
that states the main theme of the paragraph and ends with a concluding sentence that summarizes that theme. The well-written paragraph also
often contains one and only one idea: the idea presented in the topic sentence. Each sentence in the well-written paragraph relates to the
one preceding it and following it. Also, remember to provide transitions in the sentences at the beginning and end of your paragraphs that
relate adjoining paragraphs to each other and to the main argument.
Successful papers will present information in an organized manner so that the reader is given the information necessary to follow the
development of the argument. For example, you may organize your argument by discussing how one stylistic element is similar and different
in each work. As you write, you will want to describe how the stylistic characteristics relate to the thesis. The thesis is the guide that
weaves together all of the information you present in the body of the paper.
CONCLUSION: A strong conclusion restates the main thesis and explains the significance of the thesis. For example, the thesis may explain
the reason for the similarities and differences in the pair of paintings you select. The conclusion may reiterate those reasons and then
expand upon them to explain their broader art historical relevance. However, a strong conclusion does not present entirely new information.
II. General (brief) description of the paintings and their subject matter (can be one paragraph or two, or this could be a compare/contrast
of the composition of the works).
III. Compare/contrast formal element 1* (Describe and interpret. Make sure your points tie back to your thesis).
IV. Compare/contrast formal element 2* (Describe and interpret. Make sure your points tie back to your thesis).
V. Compare/contrast of formal element 3* (Describe and interpret. Make sure your points tie back to your thesis).
*You can touch on more than one formal element in each paragraph (i.e. if the formal element you are focusing on is brushwork/line you can
usually mention texture as well). Make sure you focus your paragraph on the formal element that is most crucial to your argument, but also
discuss additional elements as you see fit.
(4) WRITING STYLE
Successful papers will use language that is clear and easy to read. They will present detailed and accurate evidence that has been
organized to support their main arguments. Below are some guidelines that should help you write a paper that is easy to read.
Be consistent as you write. Italicize the titles of paintings or other artworks you describe. After mentioning the title in its entirety,
you may abbreviate it only after indicating that you will do so to your reader. For example, if you were writing about Benozzo Gozzoli’s
Procession of the Magi, you might refer to it as the Procession after the first mention of its title. However, you would need to ensure
that the reader understood the abbreviated title. Thus, the first time you referred to Gozzoli’s fresco, you might write: “Benozzo
Gozzoli’s Procession of the Magi (hereafter referred to as the Procession).” Instead of writing the full title in subsequent sentences you
would refer to “the Procession.”
Avoid making value judgments. For example, rather than asserting that one painting is “better,” “more beautiful,” “more advanced,” or “more
appealing to you personally” than the other, explain how the paintings differ that you can ground in verifiable visual evidence and details
from course lectures and readings.
Define the terms you use. If you use general terms like “realism” or “naturalism,” explain what you mean. For example, to what are you
comparing the image if you use the term “realistic”? What qualities make a work appear “realistic” or “naturalistic”?
Avoid all contractions in any formal writing assignment including “don’t,” “can’t,” “won’t,” and “didn’t.” They look very sloppy and
detract from the quality of your writing. Please note: most spell check functions do not catch contractions, so you need to proofread your
papers to make sure that one has not slipped into your text.
Vary your verbs and avoid repetition of the same words. You may want to use an online thesaurus such as www.thesaurus.com to find synonyms
for verbs and other words that appear again and again in your text. For example, you may find that you rely on the verb “make” when you
might instead find that the verbs “create,” “conceive,” “compose,” “assemble,” “arrange,” “produce,” and “form” allow you to convey more
precise meaning. When choosing synonyms, make sure you select words that you understand. Avoid words that you would not ordinarily use.
Successful sentences convey precise meaning in easy to understand language.
Use active rather than passive verbs. For example, instead of writing “the book was read,” write “Manet read the book.” Again, remember to
proofread and edit your paper. Use the spell-check function on your computer.
You must upload your paper to Dropbox on BeachBoard and print the originality report from TurnItIn.com for your paper, and attach the
report to your printed copy before submission. The originality report will indicate what percentage of the text in your paper matches
papers previously submitted to TurnItIn.com. It also compares the text in your paper to the text found anywhere on the Internet and in
(5) BIBLIOGRAPHIC FORMAT
CITING OTHER AUTHORS: Although this is not a research paper, if you refer to another author’s words or ideas in your paper, either directly
or indirectly, you must properly identify the author or publication whose ideas or words you reference in your text. In general, if you
borrow three or more consecutive words from any other source (i.e., another author or publication), you must place the words you are
borrowing within quotation marks and properly identify the source. Remember that you must also provide a citation when you paraphrase or
summarize the ideas from another author or publication, even if you do not duplicate the author’s or publication’s exact words. Failure to
cite any source properly constitutes plagiarism.
In this paper, you may use MLA or Chicago Manual of Style citation format. Please select one and use it consistently throughout your paper.
You must include the correct page numbers for all texts you reference.
BIBLIOGRAPHY AT THE END OF THE PAPER: If you decide to include citations in your paper, you are expected to include a complete bibliography
at the end of the paper that lists in alphabetical order by author all the sources you have cited. The bibliography may refer to printed
materials including articles, books, museum websites (as specified below), and museum labels as well as course lectures.
Most of the sources you will use will be from books. A standard format for listing a book within a bibliography is as follows:
Author (Family Name, Given Name Initials.) Title (italicized). City of publication: Name of publisher, date of publication, page number(s).
Please note that you may find information about the assigned paintings and artists on the museum labels and website. You may not refer to
any other websites. Successful papers will rely on information presented in this course (or on the museum’s website) and not information
posted on other websites. It is important to remember that most information available on the Internet is not monitored and thus is not
If you choose to refer to the museum website in your paper, please use the following format to list it within your bibliography:
Author (i.e. the Getty Museum). Title of page (placed within quotation marks), Internet address (placed within parentheses), and the date
you accessed it. You need to specify that the date you list refers to the date you accessed the website and not necessarily the date the
website was published. Therefore, you should write “accessed:” before the date you provide. For example, if you access the website on 3
November 2015, you may write “accessed: 3 November 2015” after the comma that separates the date from the Internet address in your
bibliographic entry for the website.
You may also cite a museum label. Please use the format below when you list the label in your bibliography:
Author (i.e., the Getty Museum). Title of painting (italicized), museum label, date you read the label. You need to specify that the date
you list refers to the date you read the label at the museum and not necessarily the date that the label was printed. Therefore, you should
write “date read:” before the date you provide. For example, if you visited the museum on 4 October 2015 and read the label then, you may
write “date read: 4 October 2015” after the comma that separates the date from “museum label” in your bibliographic entry for the museum
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